"Souvent oubliée, l'exposition coloniale de 1907 dont l'ambition se limitait aux colonies françaises a été organisé au bois de Vincennes, en lisière de la commune de Nogent–sur–Marne. Le lieu même de cette petite exposition organisée par la Société Française de Colonisation, est resté intact, et l'on peut encore se promener à travers quelques pavillons de 1907, même si certain ont subi les outrages irrémédiables du temps et de la tempête de 1998.
Cinq villages sont reconstitués (Indochine, Madagascar, Congo, Soudan, Tunisie, Maroc) selon les grandes possession de l'empire français. Les indigénes de ces colonies avaient été amené pour parfaire l'animation. Il s'agissait de locaux, à qui on avait proposé un contrat et un salaire pour venir en France habiter ces villages sensés montrer comment l'on vit là–bas. Une fois sur place il est indéniables que ces personnes faisaient le spectacle à l'encontre de ce qu'aujourd'hui on appellerait la dignité humaine. Le visiteur pouvait voir de ses propres yeux, ses indigénes dont on parlait aux actualités cinématographiques. Rites religieux, danses, artisanat, la limite de l'exibition était sans aucun doute dépassée."
"Brazilian authorities say they have pinpointed the location of a community of ancient and uncontacted tribespeople in one of the remotest corners of the Amazon rainforest.
Fabricio Amorim, a regional co–ordinator for Brazil's indigenous foundation, Funai, said the indigenous community had been found after three small forest clearings were detected on satellite images. Flyovers were carried out in April, confirming the community's existence.
Four straw–roofed huts, flanked by banana trees and encircled by thick jungle, can be seen in photographs taken during the flyover.
The community is likely to be home to about 200 people, probably from the Pano linguistic group which straddles the border between Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, according to Funai.
Amorim said the region – known as the Vale do Javari – contained 'the greatest concentration of isolated groups in the Amazon and the world' but warned of growing threats to their survival."
(Tom Phillips, 22 June 2011, The Guardian, UK)
"George Crofutt, publisher of a fashionable western travel guide series, commissioned the creation of 'American Progress' by the Brooklyn resident, painter, and lithographer, John Gast. Crofutt reproduced the petite painting, done in 1872, as a color lithograph poster and also engraved the image in the guidebooks he published widely circulating the image. The painting depicts a sense of technological development's advancement upon the untamed land like the coming of an impenetrable, inevitable militia with one uncharacteristic exception––the company is led by a feminine figure.
In the wake of four years of Civil War, the creation of the promotional material of 'American Progress' portrays a spiritualized feminine that provides nurturing, protective guidance and fortitude for the extension of civilization over wilderness and the 'uncivilized,' the enigmatic, and the primal. Disembodied, the idealized feminine portrays the evolution of the split of spirit from daily life as well as the sanctified superiority of the immigrants above human beings who lived in harmony with the spirit of the land.
The dominating and centralized angelic being's paradoxical innocence and sensually alluring presence has the effect of distracting and softening the reality and the violence of this movement to 'win the west' where Native Americans depart the frame as non– natives stake claims in the form of prospectors, as settlers: farmers, homesteaders, and travelers. One of the popular artists of the times, Maynard Dixon speaks of the untruth of the romanticized representation of facts as he complained he was being paid to lie in his artwork and portrayals of life on the wild prairie (Dixon).
Fueled by an underlying desire to be free from tyrannical government and the prospect of a new life and livelihood in a world new to them, Euro–Americans manifested suffering and persecution similar to the very situation they sought to escape."
(Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism)
Fig.1 John Gast (1872). "American Progress", painting: oil