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Which clippings match 'Hip-hop' keyword pg.1 of 2
11 NOVEMBER 2016

Rap & Hip-Hop was born in 1973 at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue

"Hip-hop music is generally considered to have been pioneered in New York's South Bronx in 1973 by Jamaican-born Kool DJ Herc. At a Halloween dance party thrown by his younger sister, Herc used an innovative turntable technique to stretch a song's drum break by playing the break portion of two identical records consecutively. The popularity of the extended break lent its name to 'breakdancing'--a style specific to hip-hop culture, which was facilitated by extended drumbreaks played by DJs at New York dance parties. By the mid-1970s, New York's hip-hop scene was dominated by seminal turntablists DJ Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, and Herc. The rappers of Sugarhill Gang produced hip-hop's first commercially successful hit, 'Rapper's Delight,' in 1979'.

Rap itself--the rhymes spoken over hip-hop music--began as a commentary on the ability--or 'skillz'--of a particular DJ while that DJ was playing records at a hip-hop event. MCs, the forerunners of today's rap artists, introduced DJs and their songs and often recognized the presence of friends in the audience at hip-hop performances. Their role was carved out by popular African-American radio disc jockeys in New York during the latel96Os, who introduced songs and artists with spontaneous rhymes. The innovation of MCs caught the attention of hip-hop fans. Their rhymes lapped over from the transition period between the end of one song and the introduction of the next to the songs themselves. Their commentaries moved solely from a DJ's skillz to their own personal experiences and stories. The role of MCs in performances rose steadily, and they began to be recognized as artists in their own right [2].

The local popularity of the rhythmic music served by DJs at dance parties and clubs, combined with an increase in 'b-boys'--breakdancers--and graffiti artists and the growing importance of MCs, created a distinctive culture known as hip-hop. For the most part, hip-hop culture was defined and embraced by young, urban, working-class African-Americans. Hip-hop music originated from a combination of traditionally African-American forms of music--including jazz, soul, gospel, and reggae. It was created by working-class African-Americans, who, like Herc, took advantage of available tools--vinyl records and turntables--to invent a new form of music that both expressed and shaped the culture of black New York City youth in the 1970s."

(Becky Blanchard, 1999)

2). Information on MCs drawn from the University of Maryland's "Mcing: The Past" and "MCing: The Present" in "A Brief History of Hip-Hop Culture"

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1970s1973African AmericanAfrika Bambaataaappropriation • b-boys • b-girls • Becky Blanchard • black culture • block party • break dancing • breakbeat • breakdance • breakdancing • Cindy Campbell • civil rights movement • Clive Campbell • cultural expression • dance party • DJ • DJ Grandmaster Flash • DJing • extended break • gospel • graffiti art • graffiti artists • Grandmaster Flash • hip-hophip-hop backbeat • hip-hop culture • hip-hop music • hip-hop performance • hip-hop scene • jazz • Kool DJ Herc • l960s • MC • MCing • music history • musical form • New York City • radio disc jockey • rap • rap artist • rap music • rapperreggae • rhyme • rhythmic music • Sedgwick Avenue • skillz • soul • South Bronx • spoken word • Sugarhill Gang • turntable • turntable technique • turntablist • vinyl record • West Bronx • working classworking class cultureyouth culture

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 SEPTEMBER 2014

The Largest Vocabulary in Hip hop

"Literary elites love to rep Shakespeare's vocabulary: across his entire corpus, he uses 28,829 words, suggesting he knew over 100,000 words and arguably had the largest vocabulary, ever.

I decided to compare this data point against the most famous artists in hip hop. I used each artist's first 35,000 lyrics. That way, prolific artists, such as Jay–Z, could be compared to newer artists, such as Drake.

35,000 words covers 3–5 studio albums and EPs. I included mixtapes if the artist was just short of the 35,000 words. Quite a few rappers don't have enough official material to be included (e.g., Biggie, Kendrick Lamar). As a benchmark, I included data points for Shakespeare and Herman Melville, using the same approach (35,000 words across several plays for Shakespeare, first 35,000 of Moby Dick).

I used a research methodology called token analysis to determine each artist's vocabulary. Each word is counted once, so pimps, pimp, pimping, and pimpin are four unique words. To avoid issues with apostrophes (e.g., pimpin' vs. pimpin), they're removed from the dataset. It still isn't perfect. Hip hop is full of slang that is hard to transcribe (e.g., shorty vs. shawty), compound words (e.g., king shit), featured vocalists, and repetitive choruses.

It's still directionally interesting. Of the 85 artists in the dataset, let's take a look at who is on top."

(Matt Daniels, May 2014)

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benchmark • big vocabulary • choice of words • corpus • cultural expressiondatasetdictiondigital humanitiesEnglish languageexpressive repertoireexpressive vocabulary • extensive vocabulary • Herman Melville • hip-hop • lexicomane • lyrics • Matt Daniels • Moby Dick • musicnaming • pimp • raprapperresearch method • sesquipedalian • slang • speaking vocabulary • token analysis • use of wordsvocabularyWilliam Shakespeareword heapwords

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 MAY 2012

Adam Yauch of The Beastie Boys Dies at 47

"It is with great sadness that we confirm that musician, rapper, activist and director Adam 'MCA' Yauch, founding member of Beastie Boys and also of the Milarepa Foundation that produced the Tibetan Freedom Concert benefits, and film production and distribution company Oscilloscope Laboratories, passed away in his native New York City this morning after a near–three–year battle with cancer. He was 47 years old."

(Beastie Boys)

Fig.1 Music video by The Beastie Boys performing "Gratitude". (C) 2009 Capitol Records, LLC [recorded in 1992 in Rotorua, Aotearoa New Zealand].

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197919922012 • 47 years old • activist • Adam Horovitz • Adam Yauch • Aotearoa New Zealandartistically innovativeband • bass • bass guitar player • bass guitaristbass player • bassist • Beastie BoysbreakbeatBuddhistcancerdeathelectric bass • gratitude • Gratitude (song) • hip-hophip-hop beatsinnovative • Leslie speaker • Live at Pompeii • lo-fi • lo-fi hip-hop beats • Maori carvings • MCA • Michael Diamond • Milarepa Foundation • Milarepa Fund • music videomusicianNew York City • Oscilloscope Laboratories • passed awayraprapperremix culture • salivary gland • sampled • thermal pools • trioturntable

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 OCTOBER 2011

A mixtape of animation and musical styles

"To celebrate the Red Bull Academy World Tour, the Academy produced a music film that encompasses musical styles from around the world.

Berlin: The soundtrack for this clip is inspired by one of Hansa's iconic album's Iggy Pop's Lust for Life. Like the creation of the music in the studio, the cityscape is built from the many organic, analogue musical artifacts used in the recording studio. Tape creatures climb across the concrete city jungle towards the Berlin Wall–a nod to the studio's physical location.

Paris: The visual inspiration for the Parisian leg of the tour is an collision between the flesh and blood textures of the African soul and funk that comprised the concert, and the architectural backdrop of Paris–the home of the Afrobeat Picks event. Musically, the rhythm builds and the acoustics echo and bounce off the city walls as we travel across the avenues.

Detroit: Inspired by the Detroit automotive industry, from the start the viewer is immersed inside the iconic TR 909 drummachine–a nod to the intersection of man and machine central to the city's musical innovation. As we travel through a CG circuit board city, the cyclical nature of the assembly line process is increasingly apparent transitioning us from the hey days of Motown R&B to the minimal stylings of techno. The theme of repetition was also carried through to the construction of the musical score.

Toronto: The animation style here is directly referenced from the iconic soundclash album Scientists meets the Space Invaders. The four superhero characters battle it out across the streets of Toronto–each one representative of one of the four soundclash crews competing in this event, Afrika Bambaataa's Zulu Nation, Mad Decent, LuckyMe and Toronto All Star. The beginning of the battle is marked by the sound of the airhorn, a nod to the dancehall musical score underpinning this piece.

Melbourne: The bright, visually rich palette of this section is inspired by the coastal location of Melbourne city. Like the experimental nature of the event itself, the narrative of this film explores the relationship between sound and space. The audio of the Melbourne tram chimes set off a wave of fluid illustrated animations that bounce around the screen, visually inspired by traditional aboriginal paintings.

New York: When hip–hop first emerged in the 70s it was the ghetto blaster that amplified the sound of New York streets to the world. To pay hommage, the setting of this film was built from the original tape deck devices. We see a Hudson River constructed of unwound mixtapes. The trains all disappear to one of the five boroughs, a nod to the albums and boroughs celebrated in this event.

Rome: Italy and the Cinecitta studios are credited for producing some of the most influential cinematic masterpieces ever. To celebrate this we created a film that paid tribute to the different genres, from comedy to spaghetti western, 70s cop films & blood–filled horror flicks to psychedelic animations, in one narrative mash–up. A Spaghetti Western inspired track provides the aural backdrop as we pan across the scene culminating in a classic Sergio Leone shot. Along the way we reveal a chaotic assortment of villains, ghouls and policeman all participating in one comedic battle conducted to the tunes of a dead Mexican mariachi band.

London: Inspired by the event theme, Revolutions in Sound, we wanted to create a dominating creature that visually embodies the innovative qualities of the event itself. As the camera cuts around the robot's CG body we see it is inspired by components of modern London architecture. His head is a pulsating subwoofer, an iconic musical artifact central to London's influential bass music scenes and inside his chest we see the magnificent London Eye, the heart of the event itself."

(Red Bull)

Fig.1 'Red Bull Academy World Tour' (2011). Passion Pictures

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20112D3D • airhorn • animation • animation style • architectural backdrop assembly line • automotive industry • BerlinBerlin WallCGcircuit boardcitycityscapecoast • concrete jungle • cut-up • dancehall • Detroitdrum machine • ghetto blaster • hip-hophommageIggy PopItalyLondon • London Eye • low-fiMelbournemixtapeMotownmusic videomusical scoremusical stylesNew YorkParisPassion Picturespsychedelic • Red Bull • Red Bull Academy World Tour • repetition • Revolutions in Sound • robotRome • Sammy Bananas • Sergio LeoneSpace Invadersspaghetti westernstop motionsuperherotape deck • techno • Toronto • TR 909 • tram

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 JUNE 2011

Kanye West's New Music Video, Errr, 'Moving Painting'

"This short clip for Kanye West's new song 'Power' is more than just a music video, he says: It's a moving painting. He enlisted artist Marco Brambilla to put together an off–the–chain Age of Enlightenment throwdown full of swords and ladies in togas. Renaissance–era rappers better step their game up; it's time to learn what YouTube is!

Besides being artistically innovative, the video is a perfect glimpse of how Kanye sees the world all the time. When he walks into Rite Aid or wherever, you can be sure that in his head he's surrounded by columns and getting air–fived by the very hand of God."

(Emmy Blotnic, 06 August 2010)

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CONTRIBUTOR

James Pratt
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