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Which clippings match 'Imitation' keyword pg.1 of 2
18 MAY 2014

Gabriel Tarde: The Laws of Imitation

TAGS

1903adaptation • beliefs and desires • biological conflict • changing environmentCharles Darwin • civic opinion • collective behaviour • creative associations • cultural innovations • diffusion of innovations • environmentally adaptive inventions • evolution of the species • extralogical factors • extralogical social factors • Francis GaltonGabriel Tarde • human innovation • imitation • intermental activity • international political • inventioninventiveness • mass communications • mass society theory • microsociologymorality • opposing ideas • opposing motivations • opposition • paths of imitation • pattern of activity • physical conflict • prestige hierarchy structures • psychological conflict • public opinion research • rational aspects of a culture • rational development • receptivity • social adjustments • social conflict • social consequencessocial interactionsocial invention • social patterns • social psychology • social system • social variables • societal change • sociologytechnical innovation • The Laws of Imitation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 APRIL 2014

What is skeuomorphism?

Dan "O'Hara argues that, strictly speaking, the term skeuomorphism refers only to those vestigial elements in nature or artefact that survive from an original form, even though they are no longer required. At its broadest, this definition extends to the levers and dials in a modern aircraft cockpit, for example, which no longer connect to systems directly, but instead are merely inputs and outputs of a computer that actually controls things. Such controls are skeumorphs because they are holdovers from the days before computerised aircraft, and have been left in their original form for the benefit of pilots, who are used to them working in a particular way.

So can a digital depiction of something properly be called a skeuomorph? It is more accurate to refer to it as a visual metaphor that calls to mind a physical skeuomorph without really being one. The iPhone's notification panel, with its imitation linen effect, was not descended from an object that was once made of linen. The switch that, say, allows you to switch an iPhone into Airplane Mode is not an on–screen replacement for what used to be a physical switch. In the early days of graphical user interfaces, designers employed familiar devices, such as folders, trash cans and other objects commonplace in the office. The result was that operating systems ended up being littered with depictions of things that had never existed inside a digital device; the on–screen 'trash' icon is not the vestigial remnant of an actual trash can that was once part of the computer, which is why it is really a metaphor, not a skeumorph. (That said, as computer graphics became more detailed, the original blocky icons gave way to more detailed depictions of trash cans, folders and so forth, which are arguably skeuomorphs of visual metaphors.)"

(Glenn Fleishman, 25 June 2013, The Economist)

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TAGS

1889 • actual object • Apple • Apple iOS 7 • archaeologyauthenticitycomputer graphicscultural materialism • Dan OHara • digital depiction • familiar devices • faux leather • faux wood panelling • folder • Glenn Fleishman • graphical user interface • holdover • imitation • iOS 7 • metaphor • Microsoft Windows 8 • Microsoft Windows Phone 7 • nostalgiaobsolescence • on-screen replacement • on-screen textures • operating systemornamental designornamental form • physical skeuomorph • romanticism • Scott Forstall • skeumorph • skeuomorphskeuomorphic designskeuomorphismThe Economisttrash can • vestigial remnant • visual depictionvisual metaphor • visual representations • visual simulation • Windows 8 interface • Windows Phone 7 • wood panelling

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 JUNE 2013

Ion Popescu-Gopo: 7 Arte/7 Arts and Sport (1958)

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TAGS

19582D animation • 7 Arte • 7 Arts and Sport • animated short filmCannes Film Festivalcave paintingsgraphic artist • happy accident • imitationIon Popescu-GopomaskmythopoeticPalme dOrsporttheatrical expression

CONTRIBUTOR

Valeria Marti
24 MARCH 2011

L.A. Noire brings actors' full performance to gaming

"With a technology called MotionScan, an actor's complete performance––their facial expressions, how they talk, when they blink––are captured for use in a video game. We spoke to Brendan McNamara, the head of the team behind the detective game using this tech, 'L.A. Noire.' ...

Made by Team Bondi and Rockstar––the AAA developer behind the violent and cinematic Grand Theft Auto series––L.A. Noire is set in post–WWII Los Angeles, giving the player the role of Cole Phelps (Mad Men's Aaron Staton), a war–hero turned police detective."

(Kevin Ohannessian, Fast Company, 4 February 2011)

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TAGS

3DaestheticsAustraliabelievability • Brendan McNamara • CGICGI actorscinematic • criminal investigation • detail • detective • detective storydigital actorsexpressionfacial animationfacial expressionsfacial nuancefidelityforensicsgamesgesturegraphic representationhyperrealismimitationimmersion • L.A. Noire • LA Noire • lifelikeLos Angeles • mannerism • micro expressionsmicroexpressionmimesismimicrymotion capture • MotionScan • murder mystery • nuance • performance capturepost-World War IIpuppetrealistic • Rockstar Games • story • Team Bondi • video gamevisual depictionvisual designvisual spectaclevisualisation • whodunit

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
31 DECEMBER 2003

Natural History: Mimesis

"But something very important transpires at the level of relationships. For natural history conceives of the relationships between animals in two ways: series and structure. In the case of a series, I say a resembles b, b resembles c, etc.; all of these terms conform in varying degrees to a single, eminent term, perfection, or quality as the principle behind the series. This is exactly what the theologians used to call an analogy of proportion. In the case of a structure, I say a is to b as c is to d; and each of these relationships realizes after its fashion the perfection under consideration: gills are to breathing under water as lungs are to breathing air; or the heart is to gills as the absence of a heart is to tracheas [in insects] ... This is an analogy of pro–portionality. In the first case, I have resemblances that differ from one another in a single series, and between series. In the second case, I have differences that resemble each other within a single structure, and between structures. The first form of analogy passes for the most sensible and popu–lar, and requires imagination; but the kind of imagination it requires is a studious one that has to take branchings in the series into account, fill in apparent ruptures, ward off false resemblances and graduate the true ones, and take both progressions and regressions or degraduations into account. The second form of analogy is considered royal because it requires instead all the resources of understanding (entendement), in order to define equiv–alent relations by discovering, on the one hand, the independent variables that can be combined to form a structure and, on the other hand, the corre–lates that entail one another within each structure. As different as they are, the two themes of series and structure have always coexisted in natural his–tory; in appearance contradictory, in practice they have reached a more or less stable compromise. l In the same way, the two figures of analogy coex–isted in the minds of the theologians in various equilibriums. This is because in both cases Nature is conceived as an enormous mimesis: either in the form of a chain of beings perpetually imitating one another, progressively and regressively, and tending toward the divine higher term they all imitate by graduated resemblance, as the model for and principle behind the series; or in the form of a mirror Imitation with nothing left to imitate because it itself is the model everything else imitates, this time by ordered difference. (This mimetic or mimological vision is what made the idea of an evolution–production possible at that moment.)"
(Deleuze and Guattari, p.234–35)

Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guattari 2002. 'A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia', London, UK: Continuum.

1). Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guattari: Chapter 10. 1730: Becoming–Intense, Becoming–Animal, Becoming–Imperceptible

TAGS

analogydegradation • entende • equilibriumimitationmimesis • mimological • mirrornatural historynature • ordered • progressionregressionrelationship • resemble • structuretheologianverisimilitude
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