"Procter & Gamble Co.'s Always today is launching 'Like a Girl,' a video ... that takes issue with generations of playground taunts about people running, throwing or fighting 'like a girl.' It asks: 'When did doing something 'like a girl' become an insult?'"
(Jack Neff, 26 June 2014, Advertising Age)
"The concept of the USP, as seen by the brand manager, is to focus on one main selling benefit of the brand versus those offered by competitors. The strategic thinking which goes into selecting a brand's USP resembles warfare between competitive brands, with imagery maps reflecting the battlefield, and positioning statements as the weapons. But where is the consumer in all of this?
Consumers do not want one characteristic or one USP. Consumers want it all. Why should a consumer have to choose between the longest lasting pain reliever versus the fast acting, or the safest, most gentle, or the cheapest priced? The concept of marketing a USP is not a consumer–centric view. It is not a realistic, relevant reflection of how consumers operate. Furthermore, a USP for a brand is limiting in appeal by the very definition of trying to sell one main benefit to the sub–segment of consumers which most values that one benefit. Consumers want pain relievers to be fast–acting, and safe, and strong, and inexpensive and more.
The consumers' emphasis on one or more of these benefits changes from occasion to occasion, and from mood to mood. Consumers are not stable, nor consistently rational. Although segmentation research allows us to place consumers into distinct groups, and to put a descriptive label on each person, consumers are not fixed with just the characteristics of the one segment. The reality is all consumers have all emotional needs within them. Some elements/associations are stronger and some are weaker, depending on the person and the day. Our emotional desires fluctuate such that what appeals to one person in one week might be less appropriate for the same person the next week. These fluctuations are hard to target because a population of consumers are all in fluctuation. This is why segmentation research can be so frustrating to market researchers when trying to neatly explain brand behaviors. Unique segments do not uniquely buy just one or two uniquely defined brands. And segments are not stable.
Instead, brand managers should be targeting all consumers with the intention of painting their brand with the emotional associations the brand can satiate. Market research should focus on emotional need states in all consumers rather than focus on segments as if they are stable and mutually exclusive. "
(John Hallward, 2007)
2). excerpt from John Hallward (2007). "Gimme! The Human Nature of Successful Marketing", Wiley
"Personas are 'hypothetical archetypes' of actual users. They are not real people, but they represent real people during the design process. A persona is a fictional characterization of a user.
The purpose of personas is to make the users seem more real, to help designers keep realistic ideas of users throughout the design process. Personas have proper names (that are often catchy and related to their user group name, for example, Hanna Reed–Smith, Human Resources Specialist) and are represented with pictures. Designers and evaluators refer to personas when considering design specifics; for example, 'Would Hanna know to click on that button to add a new employee?' Personas put a name, face, and characteristics on users to keep the users in the forefront of design decisions."
(Shawn Lawton Henry)