Not Signed-In
Which clippings match 'Search Tool' keyword pg.1 of 2
03 JANUARY 2014

Interface functions: conceptually similar operationally different

"I am going to argue that 'media independence' does not just happen by itself. For a technique to work with various data types, programmers have to implement a different method for each data type. Thus, media–independent techniques are general concepts translated into algorithms, which can operate on particular data types. Let us look at some examples.

Consider the omnipresent cut and paste. The algorithm to select a word in a text document is different from the algorithm to select a curve in a vector drawing, or the algorithm to select a part of a continuous tone (i.e. raster) image. In other words, 'cut and paste' is a general concept that is implemented differently in different media software depending on which data type this software is designed to handle. (In Larry Tesler's original implementation of the universal commands concept done at PARC in 1974–5, it only worked for text editing.) Although cut, copy, paste, and a number of similar 'universal commands' are available in all contemporary GUI applications for desktop computers (but not necessarily in mobile phone apps), what they actually do and how they do it is different from application to application.

Search operates in the same way. The algorithm to search for a particular phrase in a text document is different than the algorithm that searches for a particular face in a photo or a video clip. (I am talking here about 'content–based search,' i.e. the type of search which looks for information inside actual images, as opposed to only searching image titles and other metadata the way image search engines such as Google Image Search were doing it in the 2000s.) However, despite these differences the general concept of search is the same: locating any elements of a single media object–or any media objects in a larger set–to match particular user–defined criteria. Thus we can ask the web browser to locate all instances of a particular word in a current web page; we can ask a web search engine to locate all web pages which contain a set of keywords; and we can ask a content–based image search engine to find all images that are similar in composition to an image we provided. ...

Against these historical developments, the innovation of media software clearly stands. They bring a new set of techniques which are implemented to work across all media. Searchability, findability, linkability, multimedia messaging and sharing, editing, view control, zoom and other 'mediaindependent' techniques are viruses that infect everything software touches–and therefore in their importance they can be compared to the basic organizing principles for media and artifacts which were used for thousands of years."

(Lev Manovich, 2013, pp.113–124)

Manovich, L. (2013). "Software Takes Command", Continuum.

1

TAGS

1974algorithm • black box model • black box system • black box theory • content-based • content-based search • continuous tone • cut and pastedata typesdesktop computer • findability • general concepts • Google Image Search • GUI applications • high-level designimage identificationimage searchimage search engine • implemented differently • keyword search • Larry Tesler • Lev Manovich • linkability • low-level implementation • media independence • media production • media software • media-independent techniques • media-independent techniques from different implementations • metadata • polymorphism • raster imagesearch algorithmsearch engine • search phrase • search toolsearchabilitytechnology affordances • text document • text editing • text selection • TinEye • universal commands • vector graphicvisual searchweb search engineweb searchingXerox PARC

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
31 MAY 2013

Yossarian Lives!: a Metaphorical Search Engine

"We have created a metaphorical search engine. Our search algorithms generate results that assist people in the creation of new knowledge by returning disparate, but potentially metaphorically related information. These are the types of insights that are valuable for people working at the edges of their knowledge field. This is an immensely powerful creative tool for use by anyone who is looking to generate new ideas or see their problem or topic in a whole new light.

Yossarian is the main character of Joseph Heller's novel 'Catch–22.' Our work is highlighting the Catch–22 of current search and personalization algorithms, in that their use both simultaneously helps us through access to existing knowledge, and hurts us through the reinforcement of that same knowledge. In finding new and innovative search solutions to this problem, we declare that Yossarian Lives!"

1

TAGS

Catch-22 • conceptual metaphorconstellation of connectionsconstellations metaphor • creative search • disparatedivergent conceptsdivergent thinkingideas • innovative search solution • Joseph Heller • knowledge fieldmetaphormetaphoricmetaphoric reference • metaphorical • metaphorical search • metaphorical search engine • metaphorically • metaphorically related • metaphorics • personalisation algorithm • searchsearch algorithmsearch enginesearch servicesearch toolsimilitude • Yossarian Lives

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 DECEMBER 2012

Art Photo Index: important fine-art and documentary photography

"Art Photo Index (API) is a visual index of important art and documentary photographers, their images and their websites from throughout the world.

Our goal with API is to become the most useful index and search engine for discovering and exploring fine–art and documentary photography. Unlike other general purpose search engines where pertinent information is buried within the less relevant, the Art Photo Index search tool focuses only on a vetted art and documentary photographers and their work, making it the ideal search engine for our discerning audience of curators, gallery directors, publishers, editors, picture researchers, collectors and others who love art and documentary photography.

The photographers included in Art Photo Index have been selected as a result of their accomplishments in the art or documentary photography field. Many of those included have been published by major photobook publishers or serious art photography magazines. Some have received awards given by art and documentary photography organizations. Others are represented by major art photography galleries."

(Photo–Eye)

Fig.1 Meighan Ellis (2009). "The Assistant", Te Aro, Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand, from the The Sitters series.

1

TAGS

API (photography) • art collectorsart curator • art lover • Art Photo Index • art photography gallery • art photography organisation • curator • discerning audiences • discovering and exploringdocumentarydocumentary photography • documentary photography organisation • editorfine art collections • fine-art photography • gallery director • image database • image index • important art • important photographers • major • Meighan Ellis • Photo-Eye • photobook publisher • photographerphotography • photography awards • photography magazine • picture researcher • publishersearchsearch enginesearch tool • selected works • serious art • vetted art • vetted content • visual index

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
29 NOVEMBER 2011

Search The British Newspaper Archive online

"The British Library and online publisher brightsolid today launch a website that will transform the way that people use historical newspapers to find out about the past. The British Newspaper Archive website will offer access to up to 4 million fully searchable pages, featuring more than 200 newspaper titles from every part of the UK and Ireland. The newspapers – which mainly date from the 19th century, but which include runs dating back to the first half of the 18th century – cover every aspect of local, regional and national news."

(The British Library and brightsolid, 29/11/2011)

1

TAGS

1851 • 18th century19th century2011advertisementancestorsannouncements • brightsolid • British Library • British Newspaper Archive • classifieds • crime and punishment • Crystal Palace • cultural heritagedigital heritagedigital resourcesdigitisationenterprise and creativityeveryday lifefamilyfamily historyfashiongenealogy • historic events • historical detail • historical newspapers • historyillustrationsIreland • letters to the editor • lives of ordinary people • local news • microfilm • milestone events • national cultural heritage online • national news • newspaper • newspaper collection • notable individualsobituaryonline accesspay-per-viewpreservation • published record • regional news • resourcesearchsearch toolsearchable content • searchable online • shared memory • social transformationThe Great Exhibition (1851)UKVictorian

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
13 MAY 2011

Connected Histories: digital resources of early modern and 19th century Britain

"Connected Histories brings together a range of digital resources related to early modern and nineteenth century Britain with a single federated search that allows sophisticated searching of names, places and dates, as well as the ability to save, connect and share resources within a personal workspace."

(University of Hertfordshire, University of London, University of Sheffield, 2011)

Fig.1 "The photograph shows the beach at Cromer in Norfolk, which features in Emma (1816) as 'The best of all the sea–bathing places'. A small fishing village then, noted for its crabs, by 1887 the railway had arrived. The pier (which still stands) was built in 1901." Martin (Manuscripts Cataloguer), Caird Library

1
2

TAGS

19th century2011Bodleian LibraryBritainBritish history • British Origins • Connected Histories • conservationcultural heritagecultural representationsdigital heritagedigital resourcesdigitisationearly modern periodEconomic and Social Research Council • eContent • everyday lifefamily historygenealogy • Higher Education Digitisation Service • history • HRI Online Publications • Humanities Research Institute • ICT • Irish Origins • JISC • John Johnson Collection • John Strype • Leverhulme Trust • London Lives • manuscriptmapsmuseologynational cultural heritage online • National Wills Index • nineteenth century • Origins.net • personal workspace • plates • preservation • printed ephemera • ProQuest • Scots Origins • searchsearch toolshare resources • Stuart London • taxonomyUKUniversity of HertfordshireUniversity of LondonUniversity of NottinghamUniversity of Sheffield

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
Sign-In

Sign-In to Folksonomy

Can't access your account?

New to Folksonomy?

Sign-Up or learn more.