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04 OCTOBER 2013

Filippo Brunelleschi's (re)discovery of Linear Perspective

"When Brunelleschi (re)discovered linear prespective circa 1420, Florentine painters and sculptors became obsessed with it, especially after detailed instructions were published in a painting manual written by a fellow Florentine, Leon Battista Alberti, in 1435. John Berger, an art historian, notes that the convention of perspective fits within Renaissance Humanism because 'it structured all images of reality to address a single spectator who, unlike God, could only be in one place at a time.' In other words, linear perspective eliminates the multiple viewpoints that we see in medieval art, and creates an illusion of space from a single, fixed viewpoint. This suggests a renewed focus on the individual viewer, and we know that individualism is an important part of the Humanism of the Renaissance."

(Beth Harris and Steven Zucker, Smarthistory)

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1420 • 3D spaceAncient Greeceart historyEuropean Renaissance • Filippo Brunelleschi • fixed viewpoint • Florence • Giotto di Bondone • Greece • horizon line • illusionistic spaceindividualismJohn BergerKhan AcademyLeon Battista Alberti • linear perspective • mathesismedievalmedieval artmultiple viewpointsperspective viewrediscovered • Renaissance Humanism • Rene Descartessingle perspective point of view • Smarthistory (site) • vanishing point • viewpointvisual illusionvisual perspective • volumetric

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
31 JULY 2013

Was Ways of Seeing the first pre-digital book?

"Everyone is talking about the way in which digital media is destabilizing print. I thought it was interesting to choose the reverse scenario: something that started digital but found its real audience in print. Ways of Seeing started as a four–part television series on the BBC in England conceived of and written by art critic John Berger. Berger was reacting specifically to the traditional connoisseurship of Kenneth Clark in the Civilisation series, another famous television program, which inscribed the canonical march of Western culture in heroic terms. As a critique of Clark, Berger created a popular reading of the icons of western art not as aesthetic objects, but deeply cultural artifacts that reveal, upon close 'reading', the limitation, prejudice, bias, and obsession of the culture from which they sprang.

This form of cultural criticism was established in the Universities, especially Marxist leaning polytechnics, but had never before had such a popular airing. The idea that classic paintings could be decoded to reveal social facts–and in fact Berger compared them to modern advertising–was heretical and his work was met with incredulity and anger in the hallowed halls of University Art History departments around the country, But Berger's position, especially his proto–feminist critique of female nudes, would grow to become the dominant form of art criticism in the years ahead.

The television program had moderate success but shortly after it aired Berger joined with producer Mike Dibb and graphic designer Richard Hollis to produce a printed version of the televised series. Clark had also produced a book to accompany Civilisation: a huge, lavish, full–color coffee table monster that must have weighted 10 kilos. In contrast Berger, Dibb and Hollis produced a slim paperback, 127 x 203mm, of only 166 pages. Even more radical, the book was produced in black + white, reducing the famous art to mere notations on standard, uncoated paper of a trade book. It was published by the BBC Books under the Pelican Books imprint, a division of the venerable Penguin Press organized to publish books to educate rather than entertain the reading public.

Even more striking was the book's design. Hollis starts the text of the first essay on the cover: 'Seeing comes before words. The child looks and recognizes before it can speak.' This simple typographic trick gives the book both a certain modesty (saves on pages) and an urgency (no time to waste). Starting on the outside also suggests a digital quality, the content is broadcast to the reader even as they pass the shelf.

The interior is equally unusual. Hollis set the entire book in a bold sans serif font, a very unlikely choice and aggressively un–civilized. There is no nod to classicism, the book is an entirely modern form. The text is broken down into short bursts, usually no more than a paragraph coupled with a visual example. Again reflecting its origin as a televisual experience the text and images work simultaneously, one form leveraging the other. There are five such text–and–image essays on everything from renaissance nudes to modern advertising. But Berger also adds for entirely visual essays. He assembles a series of examples that by the power of his selection and through their aggressive juxtaposition, he makes his thesis without any words at all. In so doing he presages the development of the curated playlist as a predominant contemporary form and creates the first pre–digital book."

(Michael Rock, 2011, 2x4)

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2011 • 2x4 • aesthetic objectsart criticismart history • BBC Books • BBC Twoblack and white • canonical march • Civilisation (series) • contemporary form • cultural artefactscultural criticism • curated playlist • destabilising force • digital media • digital quality • educate rather than entertain • end of print • famous art • female nudes • heroic terms • John Bergerjuxtaposition • Kenneth Clark • Michael Rock • Mike Dibb • modern advertising • modern form • modestypaperback • Pelican Books • Penguin Random Housepolytechnic • pre-digital book • print and digitalprinted version • proto-feminist critique • renaissance nudes • Richard Hollis • sans-serif typeface • seeing comes before words • short formsocial factstelevision programmetelevision seriestelevisual experiencetext and image • trade book • typographic trick • uncoated paper • urgency • visual culturevisual essayWays of Seeingwestern artWestern culture

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
06 NOVEMBER 2011

Visual Communication in the Teaching of Writing

"Of course, other kinds of assignments involving visuals do occur in college writing pedagogies. Visual analysis (especially advertising analysis) has been commonplace in postsecondary writing instruction for at least fifty years as a part of the post–World War II emphasis on propaganda and semantics characteristic of many composition and communication courses beginning in the 1940s, but that practice did not always or consistently include careful consideration of how images, layout, or graphics actually communicated meaning. Instead, advertising was treated as a subject for critique rather than itself a form of communication that employed both word and image" (Diana George, 2002, p.21).

"If I have given the impression that the media revolution of the fifties and sixties was a tough one for [writing] composition teachers, then I must say here that the world of graphic design, electronic text, and Web technologies certainly will prove even more difficult, though ultimately perhaps more useful for future understandings of composition as design. As with written compositions, Web pages must have an internal coherence; they must, in other words, be navigable. Unlike written compositions, the internal logic of a Web piece is likely to appear first in the visual construction of the page – not only in the images chosen but the colors, the placement of text or links, the font, the use of white space, and other elements linked more closely to the world of graphic design than to composition pedagogy. The work of Anne Wysocki is useful here as she challenges writing teachers to rethink their notions of what composition means – beyond the word and inclusive of the visual. Wysocki writes, 'When we ask people in our classes to write for the Web we enlarge what we mean by composition. None of us are unaware of the visuality of the Web, of how that initial default, neutral grey has a different blankness than typing–paper' ('Monitoring Order'). And whether it is true or not that their teachers are aware of the difference between the blank screen and the blank page, our students are certainly aware of this difference. Many already compose for the Web. Many have worked in the realm of the visual (or the virtual) as constitutive of composing texts of all sorts years before they get to their first–year college courses."

(Diana George, 2002, p.26,27)

Fig.1 Photography: She is Frank, Styling: Tessa O'Connor, Hair/Makeup: Megan Harrison, Model: Bree Unthank @ Giant Model Management [http://wearehandsome.com/a–handsome–project–she–is–frank/]

2). Diana George. "From Analysis to Design: Visual Communication in the Teaching of Writing," College Composition and Communication 54.1 (2002): 11–39.

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2002academic writingadvertisingadvertising analysis • Anthony Petrosky • Christine McQuade • communication and composition • complex communication • composing texts • composition as design • composition pedagogy • content analysis • D. G. Kehl • David Bartholomae • Dean Johnson • Deirdre Johns • Delmar George Kehl • Diana George • Donald McQuade • electronic text • Englishes • George Lyman Kittredge • graphic designgraphic representation • Houghton Mifflin • image analysis • image as dumbed-down language • image-as-prompt • image-rich culture • internal coherence • internal logic • James McCrimmon • John Berger • John Hays Gardiner • John Trimbur • Joseph Frank • Lucille Schultz • mass media • materiality of literacy • media literacymulti-modal design • multiliteracies • multiliteracy • multimodal composition • navigable • Neil Postman • New London Group • pedagogypictorial systemspopular culture • Robert Connors • Rudolph Flesch • Sarah Louise Arnold • teaching of writing • technologysaturated • televisiontextual analysis • verbal and visual relationships • verbal communication • visual communicationvisual construction • visual construction of the page • visual designvisual languagevisual literacy • visuality of the web • Walker Gibson • web technologies • William Costanzo • William Hogarth • writing • writing composition • writing for the web • writing teachers • written compositions

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 MAY 2011

John Berger: Ways of Seeing

"Published in 1972 and based on a BBC television programme of the same name, this is a very influential text on art criticism. Although the book and programme make the same case, they do so in slightly different ways, and the programme is well worth watching. For the photographer, the book has the advantage of putting photography in the context of western art. For the student new to critical theory, it has the advantage of being produced for a mass audience, and has as a central aim the de–mystification of art. These two points make it relatively easy to understand. A further advantage this book has is that many students have not had the opportunity to study photography, but have studied art, and so the book presents a logical progression for them when they start to study photography.

The television programme is divided into four sections and although the book is divided into seven chapters (three being made up solely of images), the book also covers four areas."

(John Berger, 1990)

John Berger (1990). 'Ways of Seeing: Based on the BBC Television Series', Penguin

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1972academic discourse • advertising photography • artart criticismauthorshipBBC • buying power • commercialisationconnoisseurshipconsumerism • demystifying • John Bergermass audiencemeaningmechanical reproduction • modern consumerist society • nude in western artobjectification of women • objectified women • oil painting • photographic reproduction • photographypictorial reproduction • power of money • publicity • realismrepresentationseeingsocial constructionismspectacletelevision documentarytelevision programmetraditionvisual culturevisual depictionvisual languagevisual literacyvisual representational strategiesWays of Seeingwestern art • what we know

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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