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Which clippings match 'Design Methodology' keyword pg.1 of 2
12 OCTOBER 2014

The Ulm School: designing the system rather than the object

"The Ulm School of Design was founded in 1953 by Inge Aicher–Scholl, Otl Aicher and Max Bill, with the main task of incorporate design into industry and to shape our material culture. In the post–war years, the process was marked by a crisis of values and resources, and this fact drove the Ulm School to re–think the meaning of creating forms in the contemporary world and to democratize the access to design. The exhibition explores the concept of 'system', related with a set of rationally components capable of generating an object, and also the systematic approach of the school, which included for the first time, the integration of science and art.

The importance of the Ulm School in the history of design comes from the strict methodology they imposed on project development. Focusing on an inter–disciplinary work and objective design analysis, it rejected design as an artistic activity and spread through industry to all walks of life. The school was recognized worldwide for its approach of focusing on the design of the system rather than the object."

(Ethel Baraona Pohl, 13 February 2012, Domus Magazine)

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1953 • 1972 Munich Olympics • access to design • Bilbao metro • Braun KM2 Multiwerk • communication analysis • communication problems • communication systems • construction systems • contemporary world • Design Hub Barcelona • design methodologydesign of the system rather than the objectDieter Rams • domestic products • Domus (magazine) • elementary objects • flexible products • furniture systems • Hans Gugelot • Hans Roericht • Herbert Lindinger • Inge Aicher-Scholl • integration of science and art • interchangeable elements • interdisciplinary working • Konrad Wachsmann • Lufthansa • material cultureMax Billmechanisation • methodological analysis • new approach • Nick Roericht • Norman Foster • objective design analysis • Otl Aicherpost-war eraprefabricationproject developmentsemiotics • simple systems • systematic approach • systems in electronics • tablewareUlm School of DesignWilhelm Wagenfeld

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 APRIL 2014

Design conceptualisation through reverse engineering abstraction

"2.1 Abstraction Levels: An abstraction for a software artifact is a succinct description that suppresses the details that are unimportant to software developer and emphasizes the information that is important. For example, the abstraction provided by high level programming language allows a programmer to construct the algorithms without having to worry about the details of hardware register allocation. Software typically consists of several layers of abstraction built on top of raw hardware; the lowest–level software abstraction is object code, or machine code. Implementation is a common terminology for the lowest level of detail in an abstraction. When abstraction is applied to computer programming, program behavior is emphasized and implementation details are suppressed. The knowledge of a software product at various levels of abstraction undoubtedly underlies operations regarding the maintenance and reuses the existing software components. It is, therefore natural that there is a steadying growing interest in reverse engineering, as a capable of extracting information and documents from a software product to present in higher levels of abstraction than that of code. The abstraction as the process of ignoring certain details in order to simplify the problem and so facilitates the specification, design and implementation of a system to proceed in step–wise fashion. In the context of software maintenance [3], four levels of reverse engineering abstraction are defined: implementation abstraction, structural abstraction, functional abstraction and domain abstraction.

Implementation abstraction is a lowest level of abstraction and at this level the abstraction of the knowledge of the language in which the system is written, the syntax and semantics of language and the hierarchy of system components (program or module tree) rather then data structures and algorithms is abstracted. Structural abstraction level is a further abstraction of system components (program or modules) to extract the program structures, how the components are related and control to each other. Functional abstraction level is a higher abstraction level, it usually achieve by further abstraction of components or sub–components (programs or modules or class) to reveal the relations and logic, which perform certain tasks. Domain Abstraction further abstracts the functions by replacing its algorithmic nature with concepts and specific to the application domain."

(Nadim Asif, 2003)

Nadim Asif (2003). "Reverse Engineering Methodology to Recover the Design Artifacts: A Case Study". International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice, SERP '03 Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. Volume 2.

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2003abstract representation • abstraction layers • abstractions for problem solving • application domain • appropriately complex representation • conceptual hierarchy • conceptual organisation • conceptualisationdesign abstractiondesign conceptualisationdesign methodologydesign modeldesign problem • domain abstraction • functional abstractionhigh-level design • implementation abstraction • layers of abstraction • problem abstractionproblem-solvingrequirements engineeringreverse engineeringreverse engineering abstraction • Reverse Engineering Abstraction Methodology (REAM) • software abstraction • software artefact • software designsoftware engineeringsoftware modellingstructural abstraction • system components • system processes • systems theory

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 OCTOBER 2011

Design Council: Design methods

"This section explains some design methods and how they are used by designers. We talk you through everything from brainstorming to physical prototyping."

(UK Design Council)

[Their design 'methods' include: Observation, User diaries, Being your users, Brainstorming, Choosing a sample, Quantitative surveys, Fast visualisation, Secondary research, Focus groups, Assessment criteria, Comparing notes, Drivers and hurdles, Customer journey mapping, Character profiles, Scenarios, Role-playing, Service blueprints, Physical prototyping, Phasing, Final testing, Evaluation, Feedback loops, Methods banks.]

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eing your users • blueprinting • brainstorming • character profiles • choosing a sample • cluster and vote • comparing notes • customer journey mapping • Design Council (UK)design methoddesign methodologydesign methodsdesign researchdesign team • drivers and hurdles • fast visualisation • focus groups • hopes and fears • innovationmethods for design practicemind mapmind mappingobservationpersonas (UCD) • physical prototyping • project space • prototypingquantitative surveysrole playingscenarios • scribble-say-slap • scribble-say-slap brainstorming • secondary research • UCD • user diaries • workshop toolkit

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 SEPTEMBER 2011

Revisiting Craft 2: Tools of Craftsmanship

"To McCullough, computer animation, geometric modeling, spatial databases–in general, all forms of media production or design–can be said to be 'crafted' when creators 'use limited software capacities resourcefully, imaginatively, and in compensation for the inadequacies of prepackaged, hard–coded operations' (21).... Again, as Sennett suggests, we 'assert our own individuality' against the prepackaged, predetermined processes and limitations of the tools we're using. Craftsmanship, says aesthetic historian David Pye, is 'workmanship using any kind of technique or apparatus, in which the quality of the result is not predetermined, but depends on the judgment [sic], dexterity and care which the maker exercises as he works' (45).

'Workmanship engages us with both functional and aesthetic qualities. It conveys a specific relation between form and content, such that the form realizes the content, in a manner that is enriched by the idiosyncrasies of the medium' (McCullough p.203). '[E]ach medium,' McCullough says, 'is distinguished by particular vocabulary, constructions, and modifiers, and these together establish within it a limited but rich set of possibilities' (McCullough p.230). Similarly, each methodology, or each research resource, has its own particular vocabulary, constructions, modifiers, obligations, and limitations. We need to choose our tools with these potentially enriching, and just as potentially debilitating, idiosyncrasies in mind. Do we need advanced software, or will iMovie suffice? Do we need to record an focus group in video–or will the presence of the camera compromise my rapport with my interviewee? Will an audio recording be more appropriate? Do we need to conduct primary interviews if others have already documented extensive interviews with these same subjects? Do we need to conduct extensive, long–term field–work–or can we accomplish everything in a short, well–planned research trip? How do I match my problem or project to the most appropriate tool?"

(Shannon Mattern, Words in Space)

Malcolm McCullough, Abstracting Craft: The Practiced Digital Hand (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996).

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aesthetic qualitiesaestheticsapparatusartistic practicecomputer animation • constructions • craftedcraftsmanshipcraftworkcreative practicecritical theorycultural technology • David Pye • design methodology • design possibilities • design vocabulary • dexterity • experimentationform and contentform realises content • functional qualities • geometric modelling • hard-coded operations • imaginative • iMovie • insightjudgement • limitations • maker • Malcolm McCullough • media productionmedium • modifiers • pre-packaged • research • resourcefulness • Richard Sennett • software capacities • spatial databases • techniquetheory buildingtool • tools of craftsmanship • truth to materialsvisual vocabularyvocabulary • workmanship

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 MAY 2011

The regionalisation of knowledge in Korean design education

"Multimedia techniques change very quickly in Korea. All of the universities have made new departments for interactive media and have had more instructors who are involved in high technology such as Web design, game character design, motion graphics, and moving image design. After the development of the Internet and multimedia games and products, many companies have needed designers with new skills. Today, some schools are combining all of their art departments into one college. For example, one university usually has three colleges of art: one devoted solely to music, one devoted to art and design, and another devoted to human movement and performance. With the development of multimedia technologies, the distinctions between these various field are disappearing. Now, it's common to use motion graphics with dance. Many universities want to expand the art fields while at the same time trying to unite them. It's a good change. If the different arts are all in one college, collaboration is easier. Students can learn new skills from each other and think about their works in other creative ways. There are problems that remain to be addressed ... Most education is based on practical business. Many instructors are second–generation designers, meaning that they learned design from the first generation of Korean designers, who didn't have a sufficient basis for study. Many instructors teach design founded on their direct experiences in the design field rather than on theory, methodology, or intensive creative thinking and experiment. Some design programs focus on multimedia classes instead of teaching basic principals of design–technology is more important than ideas."

(HyunSoo Lim, 13 December 2006)

Fig.1 Minsun Eo (2008). 'Typography and the Rules'; 210 x 297 mm (folded), 594 x 841 mm (unfolded), Inkjet Printing Booklet/Poster; Exhibition at Hongdesign Gallery in Seoul, South Korea

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2006AIGAart and designcharacter design • colleges of art • creative thinkingdesign businessdesign educationdesign experimentationdesign fieldsdesign graduatesdesign methodologydesign principlesdesign theorydesignersemployersgraphic design discipline • human movement • interactive mediaKoreamotion graphics • moving image design • multimedia • multimedia games • multimedia techniques • new departments • new skillspedagogyperformanceregionalisation of knowledgeSouth Koreauniversityweb design

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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