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06 JULY 2013

XFR STN (Transfer Station) at the New Museum in New York

"The New Museum is accepting requests from the public for digital preservation of artist–produced moving image and born–digital content. Appointments for transfer and recovery are available from July 17 through September 8, 2013, transfers occur as part of the exhibition/lab 'XFR STN' ...

All moving image materials that are digitized as part of the exhibition will be made publicly available by the New Museum on the Internet Archive, a nonprofit institution whose mission includes offering 'free and open access to all the world's knowledge' and to provide permanent access for researchers, historians, scholars, people with disabilities, and the general public to cultural heritage collections. All artists submitting moving image materials will be able to download preservation–grade digital versions of their materials from the Internet Archive. Born–digital materials that are digitized as part of the exhibition can be made available by the New Museum on the Internet Archive at the artist's discretion. As part of 'XFR STN,' selections from the digitized content posted on the Internet Archive will be informally screened in the exhibition galleries."

Fig.1 Matthew Geller answering phones during the live call–in segment of Cara Perlman's End of the World show, produced for Potato Wolf, a project of Colab TV, ca. 1978



2013 • aging material • analogue and digital formatsanalogue mediaarchivingaudiovisualBetacam SPborn-digitalcompact disccultural collecting organisationscultural heritagecultural heritage collectionsdigital artefactsdigital formatdigital heritagedigital preservationdigital video • digital videotape • digitisation project • digitisation services • early recording technologyfloppy diskInternet Archive • Iomega Jaz • Iomega Zip • media capture • media distributionmedia formatmedia past • media recovery • media storage • MiniDV • Monday/Wednesday/Friday Video Club • moving image transfer • MWF • New Museum of Contemporary ArtNew YorkNTSCobsolete mediumpreservation • preservation moving image materials • preserving the pastrecent past • Sony Hi8 • technology convergence • U-Matic • VHSvideo archivevideo artists • video transfer • videotape • visual arts • XFR STN


Simon Perkins
19 APRIL 2011

The invention of Film-less Photography: Kodak, 1975

"In December of 1975, after a year of piecing together a bunch of new technology in a back lab at the Elmgrove Plant in Rochester, we were ready to try it. 'It' being a rather odd–looking collection of digital circuits that we desperately tried to convince ourselves was a portable camera. It had a lens that we took from a used parts bin from the Super 8 movie camera production line downstairs from our little lab on the second floor in Bldg 4. On the side of our portable contraption, we shoehorned in a portable digital cassette instrumentation recorder. Add to that 16 nickel cadmium batteries, a highly temperamental new type of CCD imaging area array, an a/d converter implementation stolen from a digital voltmeter application, several dozen digital and analog circuits all wired together on approximately half a dozen circuit boards, and you have our interpretation of what a portable all electronic still camera might look like.

It was a camera that didn't use any film to capture still images – a camera that would capture images using a CCD imager and digitize the captured scene and store the digital info on a standard cassette. It took 23 seconds to record the digitized image to the cassette. The image was viewed by removing the cassette from the camera and placing it in a custom playback device. This playback device incorporated a cassette reader and a specially built frame store. This custom frame store received the data from the tape, interpolated the 100 captured lines to 400 lines, and generated a standard NTSC video signal, which was then sent to a television set.

There you have it. No film required to capture and no printing required to view your snapshots. That's what we demonstrated to many internal Kodak audiences throughout 1976. In what has got to be one of the most insensitive choices of demonstration titles ever, we called it 'Film–less Photography'. Talk about warming up your audience!"

(Steve Sasson, 16 October 2007)

Fig.1 Vintage 1975 portable all electronic still camera

Fig.2 The playback device and TV

Fig.3 Side–by–side comparison–Hardcopy vs. Film–less Photography





1975applied research • Bob DeYager • camera • camera prototype • capturecassette • CCD • design conceptdevicedigitaldigital cameradiscovery • electronic photo album • electronic still camera • Elmgrove Plant • experimentation • film-less photography • frame store • Gareth Lloyd • industrial designinterpolationinvention • Jim Schueckler • Kodak • Kodak Apparatus Division Research Laboratory • new technologyNTSCphotographypioneering • playback system • portable camera • product designprototyperesearch centre • Rick Osiecki • Rochester • Steve Sasson • still imagesSuper 8 movie cameratechnologyvideo


Simon Perkins
19 JANUARY 2011

Encode HD video for Vimeo or YouTube using Adobe Media Encoder



1080i • 1280×720 • 1280x720p • 1440x1080i • 16:9 • 1920x1080i • 25 fps • 29.97 fps • 30 fps • 480 lines • 480i • 50 frames per second • 50 Hz • 576 lines • 576i • 60 Hz • 720 • 720 horizontal scan lines • 720 interlaced lines • 720 pixels of vertical resolution • 720p • 720p HDTV • Adobe Media Encoder • Adobe Media Encoder CS4 • Adobe PremiereAfter Effects • ATSC • AVC • bitrate • bitrate encoding • broadcast standard • CODECcompressionCS4 • display resolution • DVB • encoderencoding • field order • formatFPS • frame rate • frames per second • Full HD • H.264HDHDTVhigh definition videohigh-definition • interlaced • interlaced video • Media Encoder CS4 • media technology • non-interlaced • NTSC • Pal • pixel aspect ratio • progressive scan • progressive scanning • square pixels • standard definition • target bitrate • tutorialvideovideo encoding • video frame • video resolution • VimeoYouTube


Simon Perkins

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