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05 JUNE 2015

Emoticons as computer-mediated non-verbal communication

"The term 'emoticons'—short for 'emotion icons'—refers to graphic signs, such as the smiley face, that often accompany computer-mediated textual communication. They are most often characterized as iconic indicators of emotion, conveyed through a communication channel that is parallel to the linguistic one. In this article, it is argued that this conception of emoticons fails to account for some of their important uses. We present a brief outline of speech act theory and use it to provide a complementary account of emoticons, according to which they also function as indicators of illocutionary force. More broadly, we identify and illustrate three ways in which emoticons function: 1) as emotion indicators, mapped directly onto facial expression; 2) as indicators of non-emotional meanings, mapped conventionally onto facial expressions, and 3) as illocutionary force indicators that do not map conventionally onto a facial expression. In concluding, we draw parallels between emoticons and utterance-final punctuation marks, and show how our discussion of emoticons bears upon the broader question of the bounds between linguistic and non-linguistic communication."

(Eli Dresner and Susan C. Herring, 2010)

Dresner, E., & Herring, S. C. (2010). "Functions of the non-verbal in CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force". Communication Theory, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 249-268.

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TAGS

2010computer-mediated communication (CMC) • computer-mediated textual communication • discourse analysis • Eli Dresner • emoticons • emotion icon • emotion indicators • facial expressionsgraphic communication • graphic signs • hieroglyphs • iconic indicators of emotion • illocutionary act • illocutionary force • illocutionary force indicator • illustration to visually communicate informationimages replace text • linguistic communication • linguistics • non-emotional meanings • non-linguistic communication • non-verbal communicationpictogrampictorial languagepicture language • smiley face • social informatics • speech act theory • Susan Herring • textual computer-mediated communication (CMC) • utterance-final punctuation marks • visual languagevisual literacyvisual representation graphically

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
25 NOVEMBER 2013

The Kuleshov Effect

"Technique which demonstrates the inherent power of montage as a primary tool in the manipulation of the viewer's perception. According to Kuleshov, cinema consists of fragments and it is their combination rather than their content that is essential in evoking and triggering different emotions. His original experiment consists of using the same shot of the character's face, frozen in a neutral emotion while editing it next to different objects he appears to be glancing at: a girl in a coffin, a bowl of soup, and a woman. The audience interpreted the three situations as expressions of sadness, hunger and lust."

(Laura Minca)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 MARCH 2011

L.A. Noire brings actors' full performance to gaming

"With a technology called MotionScan, an actor's complete performance––their facial expressions, how they talk, when they blink––are captured for use in a video game. We spoke to Brendan McNamara, the head of the team behind the detective game using this tech, 'L.A. Noire.' ...

Made by Team Bondi and Rockstar––the AAA developer behind the violent and cinematic Grand Theft Auto series––L.A. Noire is set in post–WWII Los Angeles, giving the player the role of Cole Phelps (Mad Men's Aaron Staton), a war–hero turned police detective."

(Kevin Ohannessian, Fast Company, 4 February 2011)

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TAGS

3DaestheticsAustraliabelievability • Brendan McNamara • CGICGI actorscinematic • criminal investigation • detail • detective • detective storydigital actorsexpressionfacial animationfacial expressionsfacial nuancefidelityforensicsgamesgesturegraphic representationhyperrealismimitationimmersion • L.A. Noire • LA Noire • lifelikeLos Angeles • mannerism • micro expressionsmicroexpressionmimesismimicrymotion capture • MotionScan • murder mystery • nuance • performance capturepost-World War IIpuppetrealistic • Rockstar Games • story • Team Bondi • video gamevisual depictionvisual designvisual spectaclevisualisation • whodunit

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
11 NOVEMBER 2009

Emotional inspiration by the physiognomic characterization

"Seventeenth century painters and sculptors believed that the activities of the soul were physically impressed on the face, such that a trained viewer could read them. This was 'physiognomy' and as its name suggests, it was accepted as science at the time, much like astrology. Humanistic interests of the Renaissance revived the Aristotelian concept of correlating facial traits with personality. In addition, practitioners of physiognomic 'science' believed that the face itself distinctly and truthfully mirrored a person's soul...

Renaissance theory urged artists to portray figural and facial expression so that the spectator might experience emotional inspiration by the physiognomic characterization. In addition, handbooks of this period suggested that artists examine the emotional composition of subjects of different age, sex, rank and character. Artists such as Bernini, attempted to interpret their subjects' characters and personal dispositions to gain insight into their souls in order to represent them in art. This effort at translation. from subjective to objective reality was said to be accomplished by reading physical signs evident on the face, by becoming familiar with the sitter through dialogue and by the sitter's recollection and relation to the artist of certain states of mind."

(Wendy Walgate, 1 May 2003)

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TAGS

2003Aristotleartautonomybodycompositionemotion • emotional composition • European Renaissanceexpressionfacial expressionsfiguration • Gian Lorenzo Bernini • hog • humoralism • humorism • measurementpersonality • physiognomic characterisation • physiognomyphysiologypseudosciencepsychologyrepresentationsoul • temperament • visual depictionvisualisation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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