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12 JUNE 2014

Handwritten directions from strangers used to map Manhattan

"A map of Manhattan composed of hand–drawn maps by various New York pedestrians whom the artist asked for directions.

Pretending to be a tourist by wearing a souvenir cap and carrying a shopping bag of Century 21, a major tourist shopping place, I ask various New York pedestrians to draw a map to direct me to another location. I connect and place these small maps based on actual geography in order to make them function as parts of a larger map."

(Nobutaka Aozaki, 2012)

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TAGS

2012around us • asking for directions • cartographycity maps • draw a map • geographical locationhand-drawnhand-drawn mapshand-scrawledlocation-specificManhattanmapmapmakingmappingNew YorkNew Yorker • Nobutaka Aozaki • outline drawingpedestrianpersonal cartographyphysical geographyphysical spaceplacerandomness • shopping bag • souvenir cap • spatial environments • tourist • urban mappingwayfinding

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 JANUARY 2012

Glitch art: created purposefully through databending and corruption

"Data glitches are unavoidable. As technology gets more complex, it's easier and easier for a small bug to creep in and ruin your perfect data. But a growing number of artists in different fields are coming to value these glitches, and have begun attempting to insert them purposefully into their work using a technique called 'databending'.

'Glitch art' is a term that there's some debate over: Many argue that it can only apply when a glitch is unintentional –– when it occurs naturally due to an error in hardware or software that leads to the corruption of whatever it is the artist was trying to create.

But there are ways of intentionally inducing some of these glitches, a process called 'databending'. Databending draws its name from the practice of circuit bending –– a practice where childrens' toys, cheap keyboards and effects pedals are deliberately short–circuited by bending the circuit board to generate spontaneous and unpredictable sounds."

(Duncan Geere, 17 August 2010, Wired UK)

Fig.1 Don Relyea, "glitched out video".

Fig.2 David Szauder, "supra glitch".

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aestheticisationaestheticsanalogue errorsartartefactingartefacts • bug • bugs • circuit bending • corrupting digital code • corrupting digital datacorruptioncraft as conceptdatadata glitchesdatabendingdegradationdesign formalismdigitaldigital culturedigital detritusdigital errorsdigital materialismdistortionerrorexperimentationgenerativeglitchglitch aestheticsglitch artglitch practitionersglitched out videoglitches • glitschig • inducing glitches • malfunction • perfect data • purposeful glitching • randomnessreadymade • short-circuit • supra glitch • tech-arttechniquetechnologyunintentionallyunpredictability

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 MARCH 2011

A simple abstract model of human communication

"One of the first designs of the information theory is the model of communication by Shannon and Weaver. Claude Shannon, an engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories, worked with Warren Weaver on the classic book 'The mathematical theory of communication'. In this work Shannon and Weaver sought to identify the quickest and most efficient way to get a message from one point to another. Their goal was to discover how communication messages could be converted into electronic signals most efficiently, and how those signals could be transmitted with a minimum of error. In studying this, Shannon and Weaver developed a mechanical and mathematical model of communication, known as the 'Shannon and Weaver model of communication'. ...

Shannon and Weaver broadly defined communication as 'all of the procedures by which one mind may affect another'. Their communication model consisted of an information source: the source's message, a transmitter, a signal, and a receiver: the receiver's message, and a destination. Eventually, the standard communication model featured the source or encoder, who encodes a message by translating an idea into a code in terms of bits. A code is a language or other set of symbols or signs that can be used to transmit a thought through one or more channels to elicit a response in a receiver or decoder. Shannon and Weaver also included the factor noise into the model. The study conducted by Shannon and Weaver was motivated by the desire to increase the efficiency and accuracy or fidelity of transmission and reception. Efficiency refers to the bits of information per second that can be sent and received. Accuracy is the extent to which signals of information can be understood. In this sense, accuracy refers more to clear reception than to the meaning of message. This engineering model asks quite different questions than do other approaches to human communication research."

(Communication Studies, University of Twente)

Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Hawes, L.C. (1975). Pragmatics of analoguing: Theory and model construction in communication. Reading, MA: Addison–Wesley.

Fig.1 Mathematical (information) model of communication.

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TAGS

abstract modelabstractionaccuracyBell LabsBell Telephone LaboratoriesClaude Shannon • communicating system • communicationcommunication processcommunication theorydisorderefficiencyentropyfidelity • human communication research • information technologyinformation theorymeaning makingmessagemodel of communicationnoise • output • pioneeringpredictabilityrandomness • receiver • reception • redundancysignalsymbolsystems approachsystems theorytheory of communication • transmission • transmission model of communicationtransmitter • University of Twente • Warren Weaver

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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