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Which clippings match 'Recognition Rules' keyword pg.1 of 2
28 DECEMBER 2013

Connectivist Learning Theory

"A central tenet of most learning theories is that learning occurs inside a person. Even social constructivist views, which hold that learning is a socially enacted process, promotes the principality of the individual (and her/his physical presence–i.e. brain–based) in learning. These theories do not address learning that occurs outside of people (i.e. learning that is stored and manipulated by technology)... In a networked world, the very manner of information that we acquire is worth exploring. The need to evaluate the worthiness of learning something is a meta–skill that is applied before learning itself begins. When knowledge is subject to paucity, the process of assessing worthiness is assumed to be intrinsic to learning. When knowledge is abundant, the rapid evaluation of knowledge is important. The ability to synthesize and recognize connections and patterns is a valuable skill. Including technology and connection making as learning activities begins to move learning theories into a digital age. We can no longer personally experience and acquire learning that we need to act. We derive our competence from forming connections. Karen Stephenson states: 'Experience has long been considered the best teacher of knowledge. Since we cannot experience everything, other people's experiences, and hence other people, become the surrogate for knowledge. 'I store my knowledge in my friends' is an axiom for collecting knowledge through collecting people.

Connectivism is the integration of principles explored by chaos, network, and complexity and self–organization theories"

(George Siemens, P2P Foundation)

TAGS

accepted knowledge • Albert Bandura • Albert-Laszlo Barabasi • Andrew Clark • Brent Davis • Chris Jones • collective knowledge • complexity of views • connection forming • connections and patterns • connectivism • conventional wisdom • Dave Cormier • David Rumelhart • David Wileydigital age • embodied cognition • Ernst von GlasersfeldEtienne Wengerevaluate and select • evaluate worthiness • evaluation skills • Gavriel Salomon • George Siemens • heedful interrelating • I store my knowledge with my friendsindividualismisolated individualJames Gibson • James McClelland • Jean Lave • Jerome Bruner • Karen Stephenson • Karl Weick • know-how • know-what • know-who • knowledge collectionknowledge commons • knowledge evaluation • knowledge synthesis • learning is socially enacted • learning theory • Lev VygotskyLudwig Wittgenstein • Mark Mason • Marshall McLuhan • Martin de Laat • Marvin Minsky • meta-analysismetacognition • Michael Spivey • Neil Postmannetwork societynetworked world • networks are everywhere • P2P Foundation • patterns of connections • patterns of knowledgepaucity • Paul Churchland • recognition rules • Ronald Barnett • Roy Pea • self-organisation theories • self-organising systemsensemaking • Seymour Papert • shared knowledge • shared learning interests • situated learning • social cognitive theory • social construction of knowledge • social learning theory • social-constructivist approach • Starr-Roxanne Hiltz • systems thinkingwicked problems

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 AUGUST 2012

Connectivism: Socialising Open Learning

Fig.1 George Siemens 2009 presentation "Connectivism: Socializing Open Learning", VI International Seminar on Open Social Learning of the UOC UNESCO Chair in e–Learning.

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TAGS

2009academyarbiter of connections • Brian Arthur • Bruno Latour • Catalonia • combination of connections • conference presentationconnectivismconstellation of connectionse-learninge-learning 2.0George Siemensinterconnectednessknowledge acquired from real-world settingsknowledge brokeringknowledge integrationlearning technologieslegitimate scholarly practices • Manitoba Universit • open learning • open social environments • open social learning • Open University of Catalonia • Personal Learning EnvironmentPLErecognition rulesscholarshipsensemaking • socialising open learning • the academyUNESCOUniversitat Oberta de Catalunya • UOC

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
07 JULY 2012

The history of the UK Design Council

"The Design Council started life in 1944 as the Council of Industrial Design. It was founded by Hugh Dalton, President of the Board of Trade in the wartime Government, and its objective was 'to promote by all practicable means the improvement of design in the products of British industry'. And that was to stay unaltered through half a century of social, technological and economic change."

(UK Design Council)

Fig.1 "1951 Festival of Britain", Graphic created by: Design Council/Council of Industrial Design | From University of Brighton Design Archives. [JRGS Alumni Society: http://www.mel–lambert.com/Ruskin/News/News_Archive/JRGS02A_News_Archive32.htm]

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TAGS

1944 • Board of Trade (UK) • Britain Can Make It • British industry • Buy wisely in Britain • CABE • Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment • consumers • Council of Industrial Design (UK) • Creative Britain • creative economy • David Kester • Design Centre (UK) • Design Council (UK)design educationdesign fielddesign historydesign industrydesign practitioners • design reform • design work • Festival of Britain • good design • Hugh Dalton • industrial design • Ivor Owen • John Sorrell • Keith Grant • manufacturing • Millenium Products • post-warprofessional association for designrealisation rulesrecognition rulesretailers • S C Leslie • shared practices • Sir Gordon Russell • Sir Paul Reilly • technological changeUKwartime

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
28 MAY 2011

Multiple media has led to a non-media-specificity in practice

"Graphic design as a discrete discipline has changed greatly during its lifetime and continues to change. It changes with the society it practices within, with technology and with its own internal growth as a practice. These changes to practice have included the move into new media as they have arisen or developed with technology; print, motion, interactive, and environmental. This move into multiple media and areas of discourse has challenged the discipline, asking designers to adapt to numerous new areas and yet continue to maintain standards of education and professional practice. Along with these challenges, which appeared largely due to the advent of affordable digital capabilities in the late twentieth century, new opportunities for growth and development in the practice have become possible.

The movement into multiple media has led to a non–media–specificity in practice. Graphic designers no longer work just in print, or even just visually. Dimensions of time, interactivity, space and sound have entered the discipline. Beyond the release from media specificity this has led to a separation from media. No longer the focus of the practice, the design artefacts, and the media that support them, have become the vehicle through which the work of the discipline is materialised. This has allowed the practice to become aware of itself in a completely different way, bringing into mindfulness its broader role and the broader concerns of that role. In an era of ubiquitous access to the means of production, the discipline has been forced to ask itself what it offers beyond the production of the designed artefact. This, along with a maturation of the self image, has led to the sense that the term 'graphic' might no longer have a broad enough scope to describe the practice."

(Neal Haslem, p.22)

2). Haslem, N. (2009). "Communication design: towards a 'socially–situated' practice." Visual:Design:Scholarship Research Journal of the Australian Graphic Design Association 4(1): 20–28.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 MAY 2011

Mastery of recognition, realisation and evaluation rules is hallmark of academic life

"Recontextualising rules regulate the work the discipline's teachers – those who constitute its Pedagogic Recontextualising Field (PRF). The pedagogic recontextualising field produces textbooks, curricula, examination criteria and standards. The knowledge produced by researchers and theorists 'passes through ideological screens as it becomes its new form, pedagogic discourse' (Bernstein, 2000, p.115). Recontextualising knowledge for teaching involves selection, translation, and filtering: emerging as a syllabus for 'physics 101' or 'sociology 300' etc. In the late nineteenth century, the establishment of state funded and regulated education systems established Official Pedagogic Recontextualising Fields (ORF) 'created and dominated by the state for the construction and surveillance of state pedagogic discourse' (Bernstein, 2000, p.115). Emanating from the ORF, the PBRF rewards contributions to the knowledge base (laboratory science, field work, theoretical writing), but not the production of its teaching texts, especially those used in schools. The recontextualising activities needed to reproduce and advance a discipline are devalued.

As a pedagogic device, the PBRF recontextualises government policies: they are summarised, translated, operationalised in handbooks, manuals, pro–forma, and seminars. Like any pedagogic practice, these are 'there for one purpose: to transmit criteria' (Bernstein, 2000, p.28). They define the system's evaluative rules and 'provide for acquirers the principles for the production of what counts as the legitimate text. The legitimate text is any realisation on the part of the acquirer which attracts evaluation' (Bernstein, 2000, p.xiv). The production of legitimate texts is a hallmark of academic life – essays, theses, journal articles, curriculum vitae, or promotion applications require mastery of recognition, realisation and evaluation rules. Recognition rules help identify contexts – a sociology class, faculty meeting, psychology journal, Evidence Portfolio, etc. Realisation rules enable textual production – written, spoken, visual etc. It is possible to recognise a context, but lack the realisation rule needed to speak or write its texts.

Bernstein argues that those working in a field of knowledge may feel 'threatened by a change in its classificatory relation, or by an unfavourable change in the economic context' (Bernstein, 2000, p.203). From the mid to late twentieth century, Educationists experienced continual shifts in the classification and framing of their subject/s, and these reconfigured the constraints and possibilities for collective and individual identity formation."

(Sue Middleton, 2006)

1). Middleton, S. (2006). Research Assessment as a pedagogical device: A Bernsteinian exploration of its impact on New Zealand's subject/s of Education. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference Adelaide [Accessed 22 May 2011, http://www.aare.edu.au/06pap/abs06.htm].

TAGS

AARE • Aotearoa New ZealandBasil Bernstein • classificatory relation • collective identity • evaluation rules • evaluative rules • evidence portfolio • examination criteria • government policy • ideological screens • individual identityknowledge field • legitimate texts • nineteenth century • official pedagogic recontextualising fields • ORF • PBRF • pedagogic device • pedagogic discoursepedagogic practicepedagogic recontextualising fieldPerformance Based Research FundPRF • production of teaching texts • realisation rulesrecognition rules • recontextualising • recontextualising activities • recontextualising knowledge • recontextualising rules • regulated education systems • research contributionresearcherssyllabus • textual production

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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