Not Signed-In
Which clippings match 'Pragmatism' keyword pg.1 of 1
03 MARCH 2015

Chapter 2: Doing Research in the Real World by David Gray



2009action research • analytical surveys • constructivismcritical enquiry • David Gray • deductive reasoning • descriptive studies • epistemological perspectives • epistemologyethnography • exploratory studies • feminismhermeneutics • heuristic enquiry • inductive and deductive reasoning • inductive reasoning • interpretive studies • interpretivismJohn DeweymethodologyMichael Crottymultiple methods • naturalistic enquiry • objectivism • ontological perspectives • ontology • phenomenological research • phenomenologypositivismpostmodernismpragmatismrealismresearch approachesresearch methodologiesresearch methodologyresearch methods • research perspectives • research strategiessubjectivismsymbolic interactionismtheoretical perspectives


Liam Birtles
20 AUGUST 2014

Musical sense-making and the concept of affordance: an ecosemiotic and experiential approach

"Is music something 'out there', a kind of structure or artefact, that can be dealt with in a static way? Or does it rely on processes which call forth interactions with the sounds? Should we conceive of music users besides the music, and think about music as something which is perceived, conceptualised and enacted upon in order to be meaningful? Is music an ontological category, or a sounding phenomenon that calls forth epistemic interactions with the sounds? And can music be considered as a sonic environment and the music user as an organism that generates music knowledge as a tool for adaptation to the sonic world?

These questions revolve around the ecological concept of coping with the (sonic) world (Reybrouck, 2001a, 2005a, b). Musical sense–making, in this view, can be addressed in terms of interactions with the sounds, both at the level of perception, action and mental processing. It is a position that broadens the scope of music research, encompassing all kinds of music and sounds, and going beyond any kind of cultural and historical constraints. Music, in this broadened view, is to be defined as a collection of sound/time phenomena which have the potential of being structured, with the process of structuring being as important as the structure of the music. As such, it is possible to transcend a merely structural description of the music in favour of a process–like description of the ongoing process of maintaining epistemic contact with the music as a sounding environment. A central focus, in this approach, is on the role of musical experience and the way how listeners make sense of music as it sounds (see Blacking, 1955; Määttänen, 1993; Reybrouck, 2004; Westerlund, 2002)."

(Mark Reybrouck, 2012)

Reybrouck, M. (2012). "Musical sense–making and the concept of affordance: an ecosemiotic and experiential approach". Biosemiotics, 5 (3), 391–409.


2012 • adaptive control • affordancesbiology • biosemiotic claims • Charles Sanders Peircecircularityconceptual framework • consummation • coping with the environment • cybernetics • ecological approach to perception • ecological psychology • ecosemiotic claims • empirical evidence • enactive cognition • epistemic interactions • epistemic interactions with sound • experiential cognition • formation of formfunctional significance • functional tone • interaction with the environmentinterdisciplinary focus • interpretant • Jakob von Uexkull • James GibsonJohn Deweylistening • Mark Reybrouck • music • musical behaviour • musical sense-making • neurobiological research • ontological category • operational description • perceptual phenomenonpragmatismsensemaking • sounding music • sounding phenomen • systemic cognition • William James


Simon Perkins
08 MAY 2011

Inconsistent design curricula and inexperienced guidance counsellors

"The vicissitudes of the market rarely dictate how many students will enroll in any given year because students' rationale for choosing a design major is not entirely pragmatic. They go to art and design schools to follow a 'creative' path, even though it may be a vague one. They could be 'natural–born artists' encouraged by family and friends to follow their muse, or they might be academically poor 'underachievers' for whom liberal arts holds little promise. Those enrolled in state or private universities or colleges majoring in graphic design may do so by default. Some enroll in fine arts programs because they love to paint, but they compromise (sometimes at the insistence of their parents) by entering communication arts programs. They may even concentrate on painting or printmaking as a minor, but graphic design is their degree goal because employment is necessary.

Despite increased visibility and recognition in the press, however, most students actually know very little about graphic design other than it pays better than fine art. A New York City high school guidance counselor consulted for this article admitted that she routinely sends her art students to art schools for 'general art' rather than focused design because she does not understand the distinction. 'I believe the student will figure out their major once in a program,' she says. But inconsistent design curricula adds to confusion, and when counselors and students are not familiar with the field itself, they cannot make informed decisions about which schools to attend, some of which are much more professionally oriented than others. Some entry requirements will only favor students who exhibit quantifiable potential, though considerably more have rather lenient enrollment policies, presuming that if a student can make a competent photograph or an imaginative collage, they can also be a graphic designer."

(Steven Heller, 08 September 2005)



academic scholarshipadmissions criteriaAIGAart and design schoolsart schoolsart studentscompromise • confusion • creative career • curriculum definition • design curriculadesign disciplineemployment • enrolment policies • entry requirements • fine art • general art • graphic designgraphic designer • guidance counsellors • high schoolinconsistencyliberal artsmarket forces • muse • NASAD • National Association of Schools of Art and Design • obfuscatepaintingpragmatismprintmaking • professional orientation • Steven Heller • student enrolment • university enrolmentvisibility and recognitionvisual communication


Simon Perkins
12 MARCH 2011

Design knowledge or design, communication and culture?

"The problem with any debate over design is that the intellectual resources with which the debate is typically engaged are themselves located within the field, and the competing definitions of design is the terrain over which struggles are fought and the resources used in those struggles. Each actor (or in this case, each designer) engages in these struggles and does so from a position within the field; each has a situated viewpoint and this viewpoint shapes the analysis of the field (Bourdieu, 1983). Thus, there is a need to be able to view the field afresh, from a perspective that is not associated with any specific position within the field but rather objectifies the field. This is not to argue for an 'ultimate–truth' perspective, but rather to suggest that, in order to be able to analyse the debates, one needs specific kinds of tools. Designers work with knowledge to 'do' design. When analysing the field of design the object of study has now shifted: it is not the design object but knowledge itself as an object that is being studied. For engineering a bridge, engineering knowledge is valuable; for designing a house, architectural knowledge is valuable. For analysing knowledge, a theory of knowledge itself is valuable."

(Lucila Carvalho, Andy Dong & Karl Maton, 2009, p.485)

Fig.1 Legitimation codes of specialisation Source: Maton (2007:97)

2). Carvalho, L., Dong, A. & Maton, K. (2009) 'Legitimating design: A sociology of knowledge account of the field', Design Studies 30(5): 483–502.
[An interesting yet epistemologically flawed effort. The paper seems to stumble through its attempt to occupy a neutral perspective on design knowledge. In doing so falls into the familiar trap of positioning 'creativity' and 'originality' against 'critical thinking' and 'analysis'. It attempts to advance a thesis based on the romantic notion of the individual whose process of design appears to operate independently from culture and any effort to communicate with an audience.] ––>



Andy Dong • architecturearchitecture designBasil Bernsteincodes of specialisationcreativity • critical realism • cultural practicescultural studiesculture medium • design and communication • design and culture • design culturesdesign knowledgedesign studiesdiffering groundsdigital mediadigital media designdisciplinary knowledgeDonald Schon • elite code • embodiment of knowledgeempirical researchenculturationengineeringengineering design • epistemic relation • fashion design • Gestaltungsgeist • habitusindividualisminterdisciplinarity • internalised codes • intersubjective • Jacob Grimm • Judith Dijkhuis • Karl Maton • Karl PopperKees Dorst • knower • knower code • knowledge • knowledge code • languages of legitimation • LCT • legitimacylegitimate knowledge • Legitimation Code Theory • legitimation codes • Lucila Carvalho • Michel FoucaultPierre Bourdieu • post-disciplinarity • post-disciplinepragmatismqualitativequalitative researchqualitative studyrealisation rulesrecognition rules • relativist code • rules • rules of the game • social practices • social relation • sociologyspecialisation • Sprachgeist


Simon Perkins

to Folksonomy

Can't access your account?

New to Folksonomy?

Sign-Up or learn more.