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Which clippings match 'Legitimate Knowledge' keyword pg.1 of 1
07 NOVEMBER 2013

The Strange Death of Ordinary Language Philosophy

Ordinary Language Philosophy (OLP) "was identified mainly with British analytic philosophers of the last mid–century and more specifically those at the University of Oxford. Its chief practitioners were regarded to be such philosophers as Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951), Gilbert Ryle (1900–1976), J. L. Austin (1911–1960), P. F. Strawson (1919–), Paul Grice (1913–1988) and John Wisdom (1904–1993). From the late 1940s to the early 1960s OLP was an integral part of the mainstream of analytic philosophy; as Stephen Mulhall (1994: 444) has pointed out, when a leading introductory textbook of the era spoke simply of 'contemporary philosophy,' it was OLP that was being referred to. Currently, however, OLP is not generally viewed as a legitimate intellectual option for philosophers, analytic or otherwise. In fact it's safe to say that, with the possible exception of Bergson's and Driesch's vitalism, OLP is the most deeply unfashionable of all the main currents of twentieth–century Western philosophy. It has fallen victim to what Stan Godlovitch has called philosophy's equivalent of 're–touching family photos, old Kremlin–style' (2000: 6)."

(Tommi Uschanov, April 2001)


20th century • analytic philosophy • British • contemporary philosophy • erasure • Gilbert Ryle • Hans Driesch • Henri Bergsonhistory of ideasintellectual history • John Austin • John Wisdom • languagelegitimate knowledge • legitimate scholarly texts • legitimationlinguistic philosophyLudwig Wittgensteinmid-century • ordinary language philosophy • Oxford analysis • Paul Grice • Peter Strawson • philosophysociology of knowledge • Stan Godlovitch • Stephen Mulhall • unfashionable • University of OxfordWestern philosophy


Simon Perkins
12 MARCH 2011

Design knowledge or design, communication and culture?

"The problem with any debate over design is that the intellectual resources with which the debate is typically engaged are themselves located within the field, and the competing definitions of design is the terrain over which struggles are fought and the resources used in those struggles. Each actor (or in this case, each designer) engages in these struggles and does so from a position within the field; each has a situated viewpoint and this viewpoint shapes the analysis of the field (Bourdieu, 1983). Thus, there is a need to be able to view the field afresh, from a perspective that is not associated with any specific position within the field but rather objectifies the field. This is not to argue for an 'ultimate–truth' perspective, but rather to suggest that, in order to be able to analyse the debates, one needs specific kinds of tools. Designers work with knowledge to 'do' design. When analysing the field of design the object of study has now shifted: it is not the design object but knowledge itself as an object that is being studied. For engineering a bridge, engineering knowledge is valuable; for designing a house, architectural knowledge is valuable. For analysing knowledge, a theory of knowledge itself is valuable."

(Lucila Carvalho, Andy Dong & Karl Maton, 2009, p.485)

Fig.1 Legitimation codes of specialisation Source: Maton (2007:97)

2). Carvalho, L., Dong, A. & Maton, K. (2009) 'Legitimating design: A sociology of knowledge account of the field', Design Studies 30(5): 483–502.
[An interesting yet epistemologically flawed effort. The paper seems to stumble through its attempt to occupy a neutral perspective on design knowledge. In doing so falls into the familiar trap of positioning 'creativity' and 'originality' against 'critical thinking' and 'analysis'. It attempts to advance a thesis based on the romantic notion of the individual whose process of design appears to operate independently from culture and any effort to communicate with an audience.] ––>



Andy Dong • architecturearchitecture designBasil Bernsteincodes of specialisationcreativity • critical realism • cultural practicescultural studiesculture medium • design and communication • design and culture • design culturesdesign knowledgedesign studiesdiffering groundsdigital mediadigital media designdisciplinary knowledgeDonald Schon • elite code • embodiment of knowledgeempirical researchenculturationengineeringengineering design • epistemic relation • fashion design • Gestaltungsgeist • habitusindividualisminterdisciplinarity • internalised codes • intersubjective • Jacob Grimm • Judith Dijkhuis • Karl Maton • Karl PopperKees Dorst • knower • knower code • knowledge • knowledge code • languages of legitimation • LCT • legitimacylegitimate knowledge • Legitimation Code Theory • legitimation codes • Lucila Carvalho • Michel FoucaultPierre Bourdieu • post-disciplinarity • post-disciplinepragmatismqualitativequalitative researchqualitative studyrealisation rulesrecognition rules • relativist code • rules • rules of the game • social practices • social relation • sociologyspecialisation • Sprachgeist


Simon Perkins

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