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Which clippings match 'Design Knowledge' keyword pg.1 of 2
18 AUGUST 2013

Thinking aloud: a method for systematically collecting and analysing data about the design process

"Suppose that you want to understand the design process of architects, the knowledge that they use, the cognitive actions that they take and the strategies they employ. How would you go about this? One obvious possibility is to ask some architects how they design a building. Interestingly enough, they will not find this an easy question to answer. They are used to do their job, not to explain it. If they do try to tell you how they go about their design work, it is quite possible that their account of it will be incomplete or even incorrect, because they construct this account from memory. They may be inclined to describe the design process neatly in terms of the formal design methods that they acquired during their professional training, whereas the real design process deviates from these methods. Psychologists have demonstrated that such accounts are not very reliable. Another possibility is to look at the architects' designs and at their intermediate sketches. However, now you are looking at the products of the thought processes of these architects, and not at the thought processes themselves. What is needed are more direct data on the ongoing thinking processes during working on a design. If you want to know how they arrive at their designs, what they think, what is difficult for them and what is easy, how they reconcile conflicting demands, a different research method is needed.

A good method in this situation is to ask architects to work on a design and to instruct them to think aloud. What they say is recorded and used as data for analysis of the design process. This is a very direct method to gain insight in the knowledge and methods of human problem–solving. The speech and writings are called spoken and written protocols. In this book we will describe a method for systematically collecting and analysing such think aloud protocols. This method can be used by psychologists and other social scientists who want to know more about cognitive processes. It is also an important method for knowledge engineers whose goal is to build a knowledgebased computer system on the basis of human expertise."

(Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard, et al., 1994, pp.1–2)

Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard and Jacobijn A.C. Sandberg. (1994). "The Think Aloud Method: A Practical Guide to Modelling Cognitive Processes".

TAGS

academic researchanalysing dataarchitectural thoughtcognitive actionscognitive processescognitive psychologycognitive sciencecognitive theoriesconceptual modeldata collection and analysisdata collection techniquesdesign knowledgedesign process • design strategies • design workdirect observationexperimental knowledgeformal design methods • human expertise • knowledge engineer • knowledge-based systems • problem-solvingpsychological analysispsychological modelsresearch methodsketching ideas • social scientists • spoken protocols • task analysis • testing theories • theoretical model • think aloud (research method) • think aloud protocols • thinking processthought process • unreliable evidence • user testinguser-based evaluation • written protocols

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
19 OCTOBER 2011

Don Norman on Engineering Design Education

"3Space Studios gestures at content areas and topics that are currently underrepresented in the education of today's engineers."

(iFoundry)

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TAGS

3Space Studios • broad knowledge • cross-disciplinarydesign educationdesign education must changedesign knowledgedisciplinary specialisation • Don Norman • Donald Normanengineering • engineering design education • iFoundry • interdisciplinary knowledgeinterdisciplinary workingknowledge integration • narrow • pedagogy • real problems • T-shaped skills

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
21 JULY 2011

Design scholarship through the Research Project module

"The final year NTU Multimedia module called the Research Project provides useful insight into the changing knowledge relationships operating within regionalised knowledge contexts. The module requires students to demonstrate scholarship that spans multiple traditional domains, it requires them to: situate their work and communicate its worth through academic writing; build conceptual models which they must be able to explore through applied research; express their design knowledge and craft skills so that they are able to plan and produce creative work; and design software and application development skills to produce working prototypes. In this way the module provides a challenge which is unique to such programmes. It requires that students engage in a sustained conceptual and technical discovery process which is located within a rapidly changing knowledge context."

(Simon Perkins, 2011)

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TAGS

academic programmesacademic writingapplication developmentapplied research • build conceptual models • changing knowledge relationships • conceptual and technical • craft skillscreative work • demonstrate scholarship • design knowledgedesign softwarediscovery process • module • multimediaNTUNTU Multimedia • plan and produce • PRP • rapidly changing knowledge context • regionalisation of knowledge • regionalised knowledge contexts • research project • Research Project (NTU) • research ripple • RP • Simon Perkinsskillsstudentsworking prototypes

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 MARCH 2011

Design knowledge or design, communication and culture?

"The problem with any debate over design is that the intellectual resources with which the debate is typically engaged are themselves located within the field, and the competing definitions of design is the terrain over which struggles are fought and the resources used in those struggles. Each actor (or in this case, each designer) engages in these struggles and does so from a position within the field; each has a situated viewpoint and this viewpoint shapes the analysis of the field (Bourdieu, 1983). Thus, there is a need to be able to view the field afresh, from a perspective that is not associated with any specific position within the field but rather objectifies the field. This is not to argue for an 'ultimate–truth' perspective, but rather to suggest that, in order to be able to analyse the debates, one needs specific kinds of tools. Designers work with knowledge to 'do' design. When analysing the field of design the object of study has now shifted: it is not the design object but knowledge itself as an object that is being studied. For engineering a bridge, engineering knowledge is valuable; for designing a house, architectural knowledge is valuable. For analysing knowledge, a theory of knowledge itself is valuable."

(Lucila Carvalho, Andy Dong & Karl Maton, 2009, p.485)

Fig.1 Legitimation codes of specialisation Source: Maton (2007:97)

2). Carvalho, L., Dong, A. & Maton, K. (2009) 'Legitimating design: A sociology of knowledge account of the field', Design Studies 30(5): 483–502.
[An interesting yet epistemologically flawed effort. The paper seems to stumble through its attempt to occupy a neutral perspective on design knowledge. In doing so falls into the familiar trap of positioning 'creativity' and 'originality' against 'critical thinking' and 'analysis'. It attempts to advance a thesis based on the romantic notion of the individual whose process of design appears to operate independently from culture and any effort to communicate with an audience.] ––>

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TAGS

Andy Dong • architecturearchitecture designBasil Bernsteincodes of specialisationcreativity • critical realism • cultural practicescultural studiesculture medium • design and communication • design and culture • design culturesdesign knowledgedesign studiesdiffering groundsdigital mediadigital media designdisciplinary knowledgeDonald Schon • elite code • embodiment of knowledgeempirical researchenculturationengineeringengineering design • epistemic relation • fashion design • Gestaltungsgeist • habitusindividualisminterdisciplinarity • internalised codes • intersubjective • Jacob Grimm • Judith Dijkhuis • Karl Maton • Karl PopperKees Dorst • knower • knower code • knowledge • knowledge code • languages of legitimation • LCT • legitimacylegitimate knowledge • Legitimation Code Theory • legitimation codes • Lucila Carvalho • Michel FoucaultPierre Bourdieu • post-disciplinarity • post-disciplinepragmatismqualitativequalitative researchqualitative studyrealisation rulesrecognition rules • relativist code • rules • rules of the game • social practices • social relation • sociologyspecialisation • Sprachgeist

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
14 MARCH 2009

Seymour warns of split in profession

"Seymourpowell co–founder Richard Seymour is warning that an increasing level of specialisation is splitting design into two different professions. He suggests that a polarisation will lead to more generalist solution providers – what he calls 'polymath interpolators' – on the one hand, and specialist executors on the other."

(Design Week, 7 September 2006)

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TAGS

2006bifurcationdesign knowledge • design pipeline • design practitionersdesign professionalsdesign specialistdesign teamsDesign Weekdesign workdisciplinary specialisationexpertise • generalism • generalistimprovisationinventorknowledge integrationmulti-skilled creatorsmultidisciplinarity • polarisation • polymath • polymath interpolator • Richard Seymour • Seymourpowell (consultancy) • solution providers • solution-spacespecialisation • specialists • strategic thinkingthinking stylestransdisciplinarityworking practices

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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