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25 NOVEMBER 2014

The Notebook: A Place for Thinking

Filmed at Irish Museum of Modern Art, Ireland. "Notebook Material" Des Ward Student artwork in notebooks – 1st year groups on the IADT BA Art programme: 2009 – 2014.



2014 • a place for thinking • art and design practiceattunementbookcommonplace bookcommonplaces • Des Ward • discernment • drawingdrawing as enquirydrawing ideasdrawing on paperdrawing studiesDun Laoghaire Institute of Art • experimental speculation • experimental thinkingfirst year art and design • IADT BA Art • idea generationideas start on paper • Irish Museum of Modern Art • making processmark makingnotebook • physical experimentation • place metaphor • poetics of creative research • poetics of thinking • poetics of thought • Republic of Ireland • Seamus Heaney • sketch-thinkingsketchbooksketching ideas • skilled practice • thinking places • thinking processthinking through drawingthinking toolstracesvisual problem-solving


Simon Perkins
12 NOVEMBER 2014

Metaphors as Problem-solving Aids

"Metaphors facilitate the understanding of an unfamiliar situation in terms of a known situation (Ortony, 1991). By means of metaphors, it is possible to make reference to what is clearly understood in order to elucidate the unknown. Basically, metaphors constitute an uncommon juxtaposition of the familiar and the unusual. They induce the discovery of innovative associations that broaden the human capacity for interpretation (Lakoff, 1987, 1993). For that reason, metaphors are seen as valuable aids in problem–solving tasks.

The relevance of metaphors to problem–solving is pertinent to three fundamental steps (Gentner, Bowdle, Wolff, & Boronat, 2001). The first step consists of extracting a variety of unfamiliar concepts from remote domains, where possible relationships with the problem at hand are not always evident. The second step involves establishing a mapping of deep or high–level relationships between the metaphorical concept and the problem. Correspondences are identified by means of abstractions and generalizations. Relationships of secondary importance are discarded, and only structural correspondences between the metaphorical source and the problem are set up. The last step deals with transferring and applying structural correspondences associated with the metaphorical source to the problem at hand, which at the end generally leads to a novel solution."

(Hernan Pablo Casakin, 2007)

Hernan Pablo Casakin (2007). "Metaphors in Design Problem Solving: Implications for Creativity." International Journal of Design 1(2).



abstraction and generalisationaid to understanding • analogous correspondence • Andrew Ortony • Brian Bowdle • Consuelo Boronat • Dedre Gentner • George Lakoff • innovative associations • International Journal of Design • metaphorical concept • metaphorical representation • metaphorical source • novel solution • Phillip Wolff • problem abstraction • problem at hand • problem-solving • problem-solving aids • remote domains • structural correspondences • theory buildingthinking tools • uncommon juxtaposition • unfamiliar concepts • unifying metaphorunifying strategyvisual punvisual rhetoric


Simon Perkins
06 APRIL 2014

State of Design: How Design Education Must Change

"But design faces an uncertain future. The traditional design fields create artifacts. But new societal challenges, cultural values, and technological opportunities require new skills. Design today is more human–centered and more social, more rooted in technology and science than ever before. Moreover, there is need for services and processes that do not require the great craft skills that are the primary outcome of a design education.

Although design can sometimes bring creative insight to new problems, this ability is more of an art than a science, limited to a few especially talented individuals and design firms. In order to expand beyond chance successes, design needs better tools and methods, more theory, more analytical techniques, and more understanding of how art and science, technology and people, theory and practice can commingle effectively and productively. ...

Design is still mainly taught as a craft. There are remarkably few fundamental principles, almost no science. If design is to live up to its promise it must create new, enduring curricula for design education that merge science and technology, art and business, and indeed, all the knowledge of the university. Design is an all–encompassing field that integrates together business and engineering, the social sciences and the arts. We see a tremendous opportunity for students that learn design in this integrated way. ...

For design to succeed, grow, achieve its potential, and train future leaders, we envision a new curriculum. In our vision, these new programs combine learning the art and craft of beautiful, pleasurable well–crafted design with substantive courses in the social and biological sciences, in technology, mathematics and statistics, and in the understanding of experimental methods and rigorous reasoning. Programming and mechatronics are essential skills in today's product world. Not only will this training make for better practitioners, but it will also equip future generations of designers to be better at developing the hard, rigorous theory design requires.

Design is an exciting powerful field, filled with promise. To meet the challenges of the 21st century, design and design education must change. So too must universities."

(Don Norman and Scott Klemmer, 25 March 2014)



2014 • analytical techniques • analytical thinkingart and design education • behavioural sciences • call to actioncomplex phenomenacraft and materialscraft skills • creative insight • creative leaders • deductive reasoning • design academics • design and visual culturedesign artefactsdesign craftdesign curriculadesign curriculumdesign educationdesign education must changedesign facultydesign methodsdesign pedagogydesign studio educationdesign theory • design theory and practice • design thinkingdisciplinary specialisationDonald Normanexperimental methodsexperimental type design • finding and solving problems • formal design methodsfundamental principlesinductive reasoningintegrative practicesinterdisciplinary knowledge • LinkedIn Influencers (series) • material practicesmateriality of artefacts • mechatronics • people and society • people and technology • practical theory • practice and theorypractitioner wisdomquestioning traditionsScott Klemmersynthetic thinkingsystematic approachsystems thinking • technology and people • technology designtheory and practicetheory of designthinking toolsuncertain future • well-crafted design


Linda Carroli
09 MARCH 2014

Gardner Campbell: A Personal Cyberinfrastructure

"So, how might colleges and universities shape curricula to support and inspire the imaginations that students need? Here's one idea. Suppose that when students matriculate, they are assigned their own web servers – not 1GB folders in the institution's web space but honest–to–goodness virtualized web servers of the kind available for $7.99 a month from a variety of hosting services, with built–in affordances ranging from database maintenance to web analytics. As part of the first–year orientation, each student would pick a domain name. Over the course of the first year, in a set of lab seminars facilitated by instructional technologists, librarians, and faculty advisors from across the curriculum, students would build out their digital presences in an environment made of the medium of the web itself. They would experiment with server management tools via graphical user interfaces such as cPanel or other commodity equivalents. They would install scripts with one–click installers such as SimpleScripts. They would play with wikis and blogs; they would tinker and begin to assemble a platform to support their publishing, their archiving, their importing and exporting, their internal and external information connections. They would become, in myriad small but important ways, system administrators for their own digital lives.[3] In short, students would build a personal cyberinfrastructure, one they would continue to modify and extend throughout their college career – and beyond.

In building that personal cyberinfrastructure, students not only would acquire crucial technical skills for their digital lives but also would engage in work that provides richly teachable moments ranging from multimodal writing to information science, knowledge management, bibliographic instruction, and social networking. Fascinating and important innovations would emerge as students are able to shape their own cognition, learning, expression, and reflection in a digital age, in a digital medium. Students would frame, curate, share, and direct their own "engagement streams" throughout the learning environment.[4] Like Doug Engelbart's bootstrappers in the Augmentation Research Center, these students would study the design and function of their digital environments, share their findings, and develop the tools for even richer and more effective metacognition, all within a medium that provides the most flexible and extensible environment for creativity and expression that human beings have ever built."

(Gardner Campbell, 4 September 2009)

Gardner Campbell, "A Personal Cyberinfrastructure," EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 44, no. 5 (September/October 2009), pp. 58–59.

[3] Jim Groom has outlined several key parts of this vision: "A Domain of One's Own," bavatuesdays, November 29, 2008, .

[4] W. Gardner Campbell and Robert F. German Jr., "The Map Is the Territory: Course 'Engagement Streams' as Catalysts for Deep Learning," EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI) Annual Meeting, January 21, 2009, podcast at "



2009A Domain of Ones Own (project) • a personal cyber infrastructure • agency of access and engagement • assemble a platform • Augmentation Research Center at SRI • bootstrapper • connectivism • cPanel • cyberinfrastructure • Dave Winerdigital environmentsdigital livesdigital medium • digital presence • Douglas Engelbarte-learning 2.0education innovationEducause Quarterlyengagement streams • external information connections • flexible and extensible environment • Gardner Campbell • information connections • information science • infrastructureinstitutional network • internal information connections • Jim Groomknowledge managementlearning technology • matriculate • metacognitionmultimodal scholarship • multimodal writing • personal cyber infrastructurepersonal expressionPersonal Learning Environment • richly teachable moments • Robert German • server management • shape your own cognition • share your findings • SimpleScripts • skillful practice • skills acquisition • social networkingtechnology affordancesthinking toolstinkertinkerer • Virginia Tech • web server • web server space • web space


Simon Perkins
26 MARCH 2013

Drawing as a conversation which prompts new imaginings

"Perception of external sources of inspiration prompts new imaginings. Research on the role of externalisations in design thinking has concentrated on the role of sketching[14]. Schön[15] has shown that for many architects, sketching is an essential part of creative design, and creation is driven by making and perceiving sketches; Schön characterises design as an interactive conversation between mind and sketch. Designers directly appreciate different types of information in their own sketches[16], alternating between seeing that and seeing as[17]. Ambiguity in sketches facilitates reinterpretation triggered by dissatisfaction with the current design[18]. For designers who make active use of sources of inspiration in designing, they play a similar role to designers' own sketches."

(Claudia Eckerta, Martin Stacey, p.526, 2000, Design Studies)

[14] Purcell, A T and Gero, J S 'Drawings and the design process' Design Studies Vol 19 (1998) pp 389–430
[15] Schön, D A The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action Basic Books, New York (1983)
[16] Schön, D A and Wiggins, G 'Kinds of seeing and their functions in designing' Design Studies Vol 13 (1992) pp 135–156 [17] Gabriela Goldschmidt 'The dialectics of sketching' Creativity Research Journal Vol 4 (1991) pp 123–143 [–E2010/files/2010/10/goldsmidt_dialectics_paper.pdf]
[18] McFadzean, J, Cross, N G and Johnson, J H 'Notation and Cognition in Conceptual Sketching' in Proceedings, VR'99 Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design MIT Press, Cambridge MA (1999)

Claudia Eckerta, Martin Stacey (2000). "Sources of inspiration: a language of design", Design Studies, Volume 21, Issue 5, September 2000, Pages 523–538


2000architectsClaudia Eckert • conceptual prompt • conversation with the situationcreative designcritical investigationdesign inspirationdesign languagedesign methodDesign Studies (journal)design thinkingdesigningDonald Schondoodlingdrawing • drawing experiments • drawing ideasdrawing studyimagining • inspiration prompts • interactive conversation • knitwear design • making sketches • Martin Stacey • new imaginings • reinterpretationseeing and doingseeing asseeing thatshared cultural referencesketchingsources of inspirationthinking through drawingthinking toolstriggering ideasvisual problem-solving • visual prompt • visual study


Simon Perkins

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