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Which clippings match '1835' keyword pg.1 of 1
13 MAY 2011

Flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand

"This flag was made on the Tory during its voyage from England to New Zealand in 1839 and raised at Petone on 30 September. The Tory carried New Zealand Company agents who intended to buy land from Maori. William Wakefield, the principal agent, referred to the flag as the 'colours of New Zealand' and the Tory gave it a twenty–one gun salute. It is possibly one of several used by the Company.

The flag's design was based on a flag adopted by a group of Maori chiefs at Waitangi in 1834 when New Zealand was an independent territory. The flag came to be known as the flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand, a term derived from an 1835 declaration of the country's independence by a group of northern chiefs.

The flag was the New Zealand Company's acknowledgement of the independent status of the country. After chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi with the British Crown in February 1840, the Union Jack was used as the national flag. When the Company continued to use the original New Zealand flag, Lieutenant–Governor William Hobson saw this as a challenge to the Crown's authority and dispatched an armed party to lower it on 30 June 1840. The next day the Union Jack was raised and British sovereignty proclaimed.

Despite the adoption of the Union Jack, the 1834 flag continues to have a special relevance to Maori and to the Treaty of Waitangi."

(Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa)

Fig.1 New Zealand Company flag, 1839, gift made to The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa by Andrew Haggerty Richard Gillespie, 1967



1834 • 1835 • 1839 • 1840Aotearoa New Zealand • British Crown • British historycolonial history • colours of New Zealand • flag • independent status • independent territory • Maori • Maori chiefs • Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa • national flag • national identity • New Zealand Company • Petone • sovereigntysymbolTe Papa Tongarewa • Tory (ship) • Treaty of WaitangiUnion Flag • United Tribes of New Zealand • vexillologyvisual identityvoyage • Waitangi • William Hobson • William Wakefield


Simon Perkins
15 FEBRUARY 2011

19th century design education funding central to the establishment of the UK creative industries

"The Industrial Revolution had established the United Kingdom as a world leader in manufacturing technology which had allowed British products to gain sizeable markets both at home and abroad. The early nineteenth century was to see those markets starting to be threatened by the establishment of free trade agreements between the UK and mainland Europe which allowed tariff concessions on the exchange of goods. European products began to compete alongside British products with increasing success which was attributed to their superiority in 'design' a feature it was felt that British products lacked.

The age of the 'foreign competitor' had arrived and British manufacturers seeing their livelihoods threatened became a powerful political lobby with the matter soon receiving Parliamentary attention. In 1835 Parliament called for a Select Committee to, 'Enquire into the best means of extending a knowledge of the Arts and the principles of Design among the people, especially the manufacturing population of the country.'(1835–6 Select Committee title)

The Committee investigated the situation taking evidence over a two year period 1835–6 with witnesses representing Art, Design, Industry and Education from both the UK and abroad. In 1836 it was to conclude that the successful continental countries were funding Design Education for their manufacturing industries while the UK was not. The Committee were to recommend that Parliament vote £10,000 to establish a Government School of Design in London with further annual funding to establish a network of provincial Schools in the major industrial centres of the country. It was hoped that as the Schools of Design as they became established would encourage the Applied Arts and Design and improve the aesthetic quality of British products thus influencing trade."

(Edward Bird, 2000)

Bird, E. (2000). "Research in Art and Design: the first decade", Working Papers in Art and Design Vol 1 Retrieved 15/02/2011 from ISSN 1466–4917

Fig.1 Roberts' Self–Acting Mule: sixty years later, the machine achieves the triumph of the factory system.



1835 • 1836 • 19th century • aesthetic quality • applied artsart and designcommoditycreative economycreative industriesdesigndesign educationdesign schoolseducation • Edward Bird • enterpriseEuropefactory • foreign competitor • free trade • Government School of Designindustrial centresindustrial educationindustrial revolutionindustrialisationindustryinnovationLondonmanufacturingmanufacturing industriesmanufacturing technologymass productionmechanisationpioneering • provincial schools • Select Committee • tradeUKWorking Papers in Art and Design


Simon Perkins

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