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Which clippings match 'Lev Vygotsky' keyword pg.1 of 2
28 DECEMBER 2013

Connectivist Learning Theory

"A central tenet of most learning theories is that learning occurs inside a person. Even social constructivist views, which hold that learning is a socially enacted process, promotes the principality of the individual (and her/his physical presence–i.e. brain–based) in learning. These theories do not address learning that occurs outside of people (i.e. learning that is stored and manipulated by technology)... In a networked world, the very manner of information that we acquire is worth exploring. The need to evaluate the worthiness of learning something is a meta–skill that is applied before learning itself begins. When knowledge is subject to paucity, the process of assessing worthiness is assumed to be intrinsic to learning. When knowledge is abundant, the rapid evaluation of knowledge is important. The ability to synthesize and recognize connections and patterns is a valuable skill. Including technology and connection making as learning activities begins to move learning theories into a digital age. We can no longer personally experience and acquire learning that we need to act. We derive our competence from forming connections. Karen Stephenson states: 'Experience has long been considered the best teacher of knowledge. Since we cannot experience everything, other people's experiences, and hence other people, become the surrogate for knowledge. 'I store my knowledge in my friends' is an axiom for collecting knowledge through collecting people.

Connectivism is the integration of principles explored by chaos, network, and complexity and self–organization theories"

(George Siemens, P2P Foundation)


accepted knowledge • Albert Bandura • Albert-Laszlo Barabasi • Andrew Clark • Brent Davis • Chris Jones • collective knowledge • complexity of views • connection forming • connections and patterns • connectivism • conventional wisdom • Dave Cormier • David Rumelhart • David Wileydigital age • embodied cognition • Ernst von GlasersfeldEtienne Wengerevaluate and select • evaluate worthiness • evaluation skills • Gavriel Salomon • George Siemens • heedful interrelating • I store my knowledge with my friendsindividualismisolated individualJames Gibson • James McClelland • Jean Lave • Jerome Bruner • Karen Stephenson • Karl Weick • know-how • know-what • know-who • knowledge collectionknowledge commons • knowledge evaluation • knowledge synthesis • learning is socially enacted • learning theory • Lev VygotskyLudwig Wittgenstein • Mark Mason • Marshall McLuhan • Martin de Laat • Marvin Minsky • meta-analysismetacognition • Michael Spivey • Neil Postmannetwork societynetworked world • networks are everywhere • P2P Foundation • patterns of connections • patterns of knowledgepaucity • Paul Churchland • recognition rules • Ronald Barnett • Roy Pea • self-organisation theories • self-organising systemsensemaking • Seymour Papert • shared knowledge • shared learning interests • situated learning • social cognitive theory • social construction of knowledge • social learning theory • social-constructivist approach • Starr-Roxanne Hiltz • systems thinkingwicked problems


Simon Perkins
31 OCTOBER 2012

Constructivism: a recent perspective on learning with ancient roots

"Constructivism is a recent perspective or philosophy on learning with ancient roots (von Glasersfeld, 1995) that has extensive implications for the use of collaborative learning tools. In employing constructivism, some teachers believe that better learning occurs when knowledge is the result of a situated construction of reality (Brooks, 1990). Unfortunately, although constructivist revolutionaries have ventured onto the battlefield of epistemological change, most have not provided practicing educators with the wherewithal to reconstitute and embed constructivist ideas within their personal philosophies and teaching practices. Teachers might, in fact, design useful constructivistic learning environments and strategies, but may not recognize that they operate from a constructivist paradigm (Harris & Pressley, 1991). Even when constructivism is recognized as valuable, few guidelines exist for implementing and assessing it. So, when CSCL tools enter the instructional arsenal of public schools and higher education settings, constructivism may not be the theory of choice. And, undoubtedly, many scholars and researchers fuel this problem with intense debates that most practitioners simply lack the time and energy to deal with (e.g., see Ernest, 1995; von Glasersfeld, 1995).

Further muddying the debate, there is no canonical form of constructivist theory. Cobb (1994) identified two variations – cognitive constructivist and social constructivist – and there are undoubtedly more. Cognitive constructivists tend to draw insight from Piaget and focus on individual constructions of knowledge discovered in interaction with the environment ... Social constructivists rely more on Vygotsky (1978) and view learning as connection with and appropriation from the sociocultural context within which we are all immersed."

(Curtis Jay Bonk, Donald J. Cunningham and Kira S. King, p.32)

Bonk, Curtis Jay; Cunningham, Donald J. Bonk, Curtis Jay (Ed); King, Kira S. (Ed), (1998). "Searching for Learner–Centered, Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools" in Electronic collaborators: Learner–centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse., (pp. 25–50). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.


etter learning • canonical form • cognitive constructivist • collaborative learning tools • Computer Supported Collaborative Learningconstructivism • constructivist paradigm • constructivist theory • constructivistic learning environments • constructivistic learning strategies • CSCL • CSCL tools • Curtis Jay Bonk • Donald J. Cunningham • embed constructivist ideas • epistemological change • epistemological divergence • Ernst von Glasersfeld • individual constructions of knowledge • interaction with the environment • Jacqueline Grennon Brooks • Jean Piaget • Karen Harris • learningLev Vygotsky • Michael Pressley • Paul Cobb • Paul Ernest • personal philosophies • philosophy on learning • practicing educators • reconstitute constructivist ideas • situated construction of realitysocial constructivistsocio-constructivismsocio-constructivist • sociocultural context • teaching practices


Simon Perkins
08 JULY 2012

Gellof Kanselaar Research Education Psychology CSCL Learning

"Lev Vygotsky's (1896–1934) main relevance to constructivism derives from his theories about language, thought, and their mediation by society. He holds the anti–realist position that the process of knowing is rather a disjunctive one involving the agency of other people and mediated by community and culture. He sees collaborative action to be shaped in childhood when the convergence of speech and practical activity occurs and entails the instrumental use of social speech. Although in adulthood social speech is internalized (it becomes thought), Vygotsky contends, it still preserves its intrinsic collaborative character. "

(Gellof Kanselaar, 2002)

Kanselaar, Gellof, (2002). Unpublished paper about (Socio–)Constructivism.


(Socio-)Constructivism • adulthood • agency of other people • anti-realist position • becomes thought • childhoodcollaborative action • collaborative character • constructivism • convergence of speech and practical activity • disjunctive • education • education psychology • educational psychology • Gellof Kanselaar • instrumental use of social speech • internalised • Jean Piaget • Lev Semenovich Vygotsky • Lev Vygotsky • mediated by community and culture • mediation by society • process of knowing • psychology • shaped in childhood • social construction of knowledge • social speech • socio-constructivismsocio-constructivist • theories about language • thought • unpublished paper


Simon Perkins
04 DECEMBER 2010

e-Pedagogy & e-Assessment: new kinds of learning

"The changing environment facilitates new kinds of learning. Teachers have traditionally focussed on content; indeed, many consider the identification and delivery of learning material to be their prime role. It is through this role that they seek to direct learning. But it has been argued that this traditional teaching skill is redundant in today's information–rich learning environment."

(Bobby Elliott, CAA Conference 2008)

Elliott, B. (2008). 'E–Pedagogy & E–Assessment'. 12th CAA Conference: Research into E–Assessment. Loughborough, UK, Loughborough University.



2008Assessment 2.0assimilationbehaviourismblackboard • CAA • changecognitive dissonance • cognitivism • collaboration • Computer Assisted Assessment • conferenceconnectivismconstructivismcontente-assessmente-learning • e-moderation • e-pedagogyeducationengagementfacilitationguide on the sideICTinformation-richJean Piagetknowledgelearninglearning environmentlearning materialsLev VygotskyLoughborough Universitymental modelsMoodle • network learning • participationparticipatory learningpedagogy • proceedings • RSSsage on the stage • Scottish Qualifications Agency • Second Life (SL)social changesocial constructionismsocial constructivismsocial interaction • social nature of learning • teachersteachingtraditiontransformationubiquitous computingVLEWeb 2.0 • zone of proximal development


Simon Perkins
10 DECEMBER 2008

A Model of Collaborative Knowledge Building

"Martin Heidegger (1927/1996) (an important recent German philosopher) and Donald Schön (1983) (an influential American theoretician of design) argue that learning starts on the basis of tacit pre–understanding (Polanyi, 1962; Winograd & Flores, 1986) (see chapter 4). Some form of breakdown in planning or in our worldly activity renders elements of this tacit understanding problematic on occasion (Dewey & Bentley, 1949/1991). The network of meanings by which we make sense of our world is torn asunder and must be mended. The resolution of the problem proceeds through a gnawing awareness of the problematic nature of some piece of our understanding. We may be able to repair our understanding by explicating the implications of that understanding and resolving conflicts or filling in gaps–by reinterpreting our meaning structures–to arrive at a new comprehension. This typically involves some feedback from the world: from our experience with artifacts such as our tools and symbolic representations. For instance, we might learn a new sense of some word or a new application of a familiar tool–more ambitiously, our understanding might undergo a fundamental conceptual change. If we are successful and the problem disappears, this new comprehension gradually settles in to become our new tacit understanding and to provide the starting point for future understanding and further learning.
The process of interpretation that seems to be carried out at the level of the individual mind is already an essentially social process. The network of 'personal' meanings ultimately has its origin in interpersonal language and culture. Interpretation takes place within language (Wittgenstein, 1953), history (Gadamer, 1960/1988), culture (Bourdieu, 1972/1995; Bruner, 1990; Cole, 1996), social structures (Giddens, 1984b) and politics (Habermas, 1981/1984). Our 'internal' thought process capabilities and structures themselves have origins in our previous social interactions (Mead, 1934/1962; Vygotsky, 1930/1978). Our personal interpretive perspective or voice is a consolidation of many perspectives and voices or genres of others we have known (Bakhtin, 1986b; Boland & Tenkasi, 1995)."
(Gerry Stahl)

Stahl, G. (2006). Group cognition: Computer support for building collaborative knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


2006Anthony Giddens • Arthur Bentley • constellationscultural signalsdialogicDonald SchonengagementFernando Flores • George Mead • Gerry StahlHans-Georg Gadamerindividualinformation in contextintegrationJohn DeweyLev VygotskyLudwig WittgensteinMartin HeideggermetaphorMichael PolanyiMikhail Bakhtinmodelnetwork • network of meanings • ontologyPierre Bourdieu • Ramkrishnan Tenkasi • Richard Boland • shared languagesocial constructionismtacitTerry Winograd


Simon Perkins

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