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Which clippings match 'Manufacturing' keyword pg.1 of 3
28 OCTOBER 2014

Fredrick Winslow Taylor and the Myth of Efficiency

"[Fredrick Winslow] Taylor sought to precisely measure the movements of factory workers and their timings to make them as efficient as humanly possible. This made him beloved by executives and detested on the factory floor, and it also made him one of the world's first management consultants. In a recent article in The New Yorker, 'Not So Fast,' the historian Jill Lepore takes a hard look at Taylor and his claims for scientific management. According to new research, he was a better salesman than consultant. Many of his facts were made up, and most of his results never materialized. We now know that Lillian Gilbreth, an early proponent of scientific management, had serious doubts about the movement she helped proselytize.

All this is important because Taylor, with his system of scientific management, was the father of efficiency. From scientific management we get the lust for efficiency in business. It became part of the dogma of business schools, almost none of which existed before his time. Business schools from their earliest days have promoted efficiency and the handling of business as something like industrial engineering. From operations to finance, from marketing to sales, business school education has focused on narrowing problems, identifying resources and working to get the most out of the least."

(Adam Hartung, 16 October 2009, Forbes)

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TAGS

20th century • Adam Hartung • business education • business efficiency • business growth • business inertia • business leaders • business leadership • business management • business school education • business schools • Clayton Christensencompetitive advantagecost-cutting • cultural myth • customer demand • customer satisfactiondehumanisationdisruptive innovationdogmaefficiency • efficiency in business • factory floor • factory workerForbesFordismFrederick TaylorGary Hamel • history of technology • ideationincremental improvementsincremental innovationindustrial engineering • innovation resources • Jill Lepore • legacy businesses • Lillian Gilbrethman machine • management consultant • manufacturingmanufacturing industries • measuring movement • order and control • organisation leadership • organisational problems • price wars • products and services • Rakesh Khurana • scientific management • taylorism • The New Yorkerwaste prevention • what organisations do

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 MARCH 2014

Work begins on the world's first 3D-printed house

"At the centre of the process is the KamerMaker, or Room Builder, a scaled–up version of an open–source home 3D–printer, developed with Dutch firm Ultimaker. It uses the same principle of extruding layers of molten plastic, only enlarged about 10 times, from printing desktop trinkets to chunks of buildings up to 2x2x3.5m high.

For a machine–made material, the samples have an intriguingly hand–made finish. In places, it looks like bunches of black spaghetti. There are lumps and bumps, knots and wiggles, seams where the print head appears to have paused or slipped, spurting out more black goo than expected.

'We're still perfecting the technology,' says Heinsman. The current material is a bio–plastic mix, usually used as an industrial adhesive, containing 75% plant oil and reinforced with microfibres. They have also produced tests with a translucent plastic and a wood fibre mix, like a liquid form of MDF that can later be sawn and sanded. 'We will continue to test over the next three years, as the technology evolves,' she says. 'With a second nozzle, you could print multiple materials simultaneously, with structure and insulation side by side.'"

(Oliver Wainwright, 28 March 2014, The Guardian)

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TAGS

20143D printing • 3D-printed house • Amsterdamarchitecture • biodegradable materials • black spaghetti • brickbuilding process • canal • canal house • computer-controlled gantry • contour crafting • cyberarchitecturedesign futuresdigital fabricationdigital forming • Dus Architects • dwellingfabrication • gable • honeycomb lattice • honeycomb structurehouse • housebuilding • housing • Janjaap Ruijssenaars • KamerMake • lattice • liquorice • machine-made material • made on-demandmanufacturingMDFmobius stripnew crafts • novelty technology • oozingplant oilplastic • plastic facade • print structures • printingrapid manufacturing • Room Builder • synthetic sandstone • technological developmentsThe Guardian • treacle • Ultimaker • wood fibre

CONTRIBUTOR

Linda Carroli
05 DECEMBER 2013

How calculus is changing architecture

"So, working with Bentley and MicroStation, we've written a custom piece of software that networks all of the components together into these chunks of information, so that if we change any element along the length of the building, not only does that change distribute through each one of the trusses, but each one of the trusses then distributes that information down the length of the entire facade of the building. So it's a single calculation for every single component of the building that we're adding onto. So, it's tens of millions of calculations just to design one connection between a piece of structural steel and another piece of structural steel. But what it gives us is a harmonic and synthesized relationship of all these components, one to another.

This idea has, kind of, brought me into doing some product design, and it's because design firms that have connections to architects, like, I'm working with Vitra, which is a furniture company, and Alessi, which is a houseware company. They saw this actually solving a problem: this ability to differentiate components but keep them synthetic. So, not to pick on BMW, or to celebrate them, but take BMW as an example. They have to, in 2005, have a distinct identity for all their models of cars. So, the 300 series, or whatever their newest car is, the 100 series that's coming out, has to look like the 700 series, at the other end of their product line, so they need a distinct, coherent identity, which is BMW. At the same time, there's a person paying 30,000 dollars for a 300–series car, and a person paying 70,000 dollars for a 700 series, and that person paying more than double doesn't want their car to look too much like the bottom–of–the–market car. So they have to also discriminate between these products. So, as manufacturing starts to allow more design options, this problem gets exacerbated, of the whole and the parts."

(Greg Lynn, February 2005)

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2005abnormalityalgorithmalgorithmic architecture • Antonio Gaudi • architecture • beautiful architecture • beauty • Bentley Motors • BMW • bridge • bubble diagram • buildingcalculation • calculus • Chris Williams • Christopher Wren • computational aestheticscontinuous series • curvature • custom software • dais • digital fabricationdigital toolsdimensions • Frei Otto • furniture • generic form • genetic evolutiongothic • Greg Bateson • Greg Lynn • harmonic • houseware • human-scale understandingideal form • intricacies of scale • Mannheim Concert Hall • manufacturingmathematics • MicroStation • model of beauty • model of nature • modular architecture • monstrosity • mutation • natural form • Norman Foster • parabola • part-whole thinking • physiological development • product designproduct differentiationproportions • Robert Maillart • structural abstractionstructural forcesstructural formstructuresymmetrysynthesised relationship • teratology • vertebrae • Vitra • vocabulary of form • William Bateson

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
25 OCTOBER 2013

Working gun made with 3D printer

"The world's first gun made with 3D printer technology has been successfully fired in the US. The controversial group which created the firearm, Defense Distributed, plans to make the blueprints available online. The group has spent a year trying to create the firearm, which was successfully tested on Saturday at a firing range south of Austin, Texas. Anti–gun campaigners have criticised the project. Europe's law enforcement agency said it was monitoring developments. ...

The idea is that as the printers become cheaper, instead of buying goods from shops, consumers will instead be able to download designs and print out the items at home. But as with all new technologies, there are risks as well as benefits."

(Rebecca Morelle, 6 May 2013)

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20133D printing • ABS plastic • anti-gun campaign • ATF • BBC World Serviceblueprint • Cody Wilson • complex solid objects • computer printer • controversial group • cost effectivecriminal acts • crypto-anarchist • cybercrime • Defense Distributed (organisation) • destructive potentialethical considerations • Europol • firearm • freely availablegun • gun control • gun laws • law enforcementlaw studentmanufacturing • National Firearms Act • New Yorkers Against Gun Violence • personal liberties • plasticpotential for harmproduct designtechnological determinismtechnological developmentstechnological instrumentalismtechnology as neutralTexas • Undetectable Firearms Act • University of Texas • US Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives (ATF)

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 JANUARY 2013

Concurrent Engineering versus Sequential Engineering

"Sequential engineering, also known as serial engineering, is characterized by downstream departments supplying information to design only after a product has already been designed, verified and prototyped [1], in order to change what design engineering did wrong, or what could have been improved. In serial engineering, the various functions such as design, manufacturing, and customer service are separated. The information in serial engineering flows in succession from phase to phase. For example, the prototype model, verified by either simulation or prototyping or both, is reviewed for manufacturing, quality and service. Usually, some changes are suggested after the review. If the suggested changes in the design are made, there are increases in the cost and time to develop the product, resulting in delays in marketing the product. If the changes cannot be made because of market pressure to launch the product quickly, or the fact that the design is already behind schedule, then specialists in other functional areas or managers from manufacturing, quality, and service, among others, are informed of the impending problems. In sequential engineering a department starts working only when the preceding one has finished, and, once a department has finished working on a project, or part of a project, this is not planned to come back: information flow is only one way.

On the contrary, in CE all functional areas are integrated within the design process. In this case information continuously flows back and forth among all functions. During the design process CE draws on various disciplines to trade-off parameters such as manufacturability, testability and serviceability, along with customer performance, size, weight, and cost [1-2]. The decision making process in a CE environment differs from sequential engineering in that at every stage decisions are taken considering the constraints and the objectives of all stages of the product life cycle, thus taking at the product design level issues that are usually addressed much later, thus giving the possibility to achieve a better overall solution [2,3]. The integration of other functional areas within the design process helps to discover hard to solve problems at the design stage. Thus, when the final design is verified, it is already manufacturable, testable, serviceable, and of high quality. The most distinguishing feature of CE is the multidisciplinary, cross-functional team approach. Product development costs range between 5% and 15% of total costs, but decisions taken at this stage affect 60–95% of total costs [4]. Therefore it is at the product development stage that the most relevant savings can be achieved."

(Ecehan SofuoÄŸlu, 2011)

Ecehan SofuoÄŸlu (2011). "Different Approaches to Concurrent Engineering"

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TAGS

competitive capabilities • concurrent engineering (CE)cross-functional design teams • cross-functional team approach • decision making process • design engineeringdesign processdevelopment life cycle • downstream • engineering and manufacturing • functional areas • manufacturability • manufacturable • manufacturingmultidisciplinary teams • new product development • over-the-wall design processover-the-wall engineering • overall solution • product development • product development methods • product development stage • product-lifecycle • sequential engineering (SE) • sequential stages • serial engineering • serial prototyping • serviceability • serviceable • silos • successive phases • testability • testable

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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