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Which clippings match 'Free Market Economy' keyword pg.1 of 2
20 SEPTEMBER 2014

Horizon: The defenders of anonymity on the internet

"Yet while anonymity offers a potential bulwark against surveillance, for those who do not wish to be watched, it has also helped in the development of that part of the online world known as the dark web.

Sites on the dark web like Silk Road have used Tor technology to hide their location and yet still be available to users who wish to visit them.

The dark web has now become a focus for law enforcement officers who believe it is facilitating a variety of illegal activities including financial crime and child abuse."

(Mike Radford, 3 September 2014, BBC News)

Fig.1 "Inside the Dark Web" 2014, television programme, BBC Two – Horizon, Series 51, Episode 4, first broadcast: 3 September 2014.

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TAGS

2014 • anonymising networks • anonymity • anonymous communication • anonymous protocol • anonymous system • anonymous web browsing • BBC Twobitcoin • black market • Chelsea Manning • child abusecommunications monitoring • controversial technology • crime evasion • criminal actscryptographycybercrime • dark internet • dark web • data securityDavid Chaum • deep web • deepnet • detection • digital realm • dissidents • distributed filesharing network • distributed network • Edward Snowden • encryption • file sharing • financial crime • free market economy • GCHQ • government agencies • hidden network • hidden web • Horizon (BBC TV series) • I2P • information flowsinformation retrieval • information use • Internet • Interpol • invisible web • Jacob Appelbaum • Joss Wright • Julian Assangelaw enforcement • Mix Network • monitoring • National Security Agency • NSAonline activities • online marketplace • online space • Oxford Internet Institute • privacy and security • search engines • Silk Road (marketplace) • surface web • surveillancetelecommunicationsTim Berners-LeeTortraffic analysis • Troels Oerting • US Naval Research Laboratory Tor • Wikileaksworld wide web

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 MARCH 2013

The Rise and Fall of Bitcoin

"In November 1, 2008, a man named Satoshi Nakamoto posted a research paper to an obscure cryptography listserv describing his design for a new digital currency that he called bitcoin. None of the list's veterans had heard of him, and what little information could be gleaned was murky and contradictory. In an online profile, he said he lived in Japan. His email address was from a free German service. Google searches for his name turned up no relevant information; it was clearly a pseudonym. But while Nakamoto himself may have been a puzzle, his creation cracked a problem that had stumped cryptographers for decades. The idea of digital money – convenient and untraceable, liberated from the oversight of governments and banks – had been a hot topic since the birth of the Internet. Cypherpunks, the 1990s movement of libertarian cryptographers, dedicated themselves to the project. Yet every effort to create virtual cash had foundered. Ecash, an anonymous system launched in the early 1990s by cryptographer David Chaum, failed in part because it depended on the existing infrastructures of government and credit card companies. Other proposals followed – bit gold, RPOW, b–money – but none got off the ground.

One of the core challenges of designing a digital currency involves something called the double–spending problem. If a digital dollar is just information, free from the corporeal strictures of paper and metal, what's to prevent people from copying and pasting it as easily as a chunk of text, 'spending' it as many times as they want? The conventional answer involved using a central clearinghouse to keep a real–time ledger of all transactions – ensuring that, if someone spends his last digital dollar, he can't then spend it again. The ledger prevents fraud, but it also requires a trusted third party to administer it.

Bitcoin did away with the third party by publicly distributing the ledger, what Nakamoto called the 'block chain.' Users willing to devote CPU power to running a special piece of software would be called miners and would form a network to maintain the block chain collectively. In the process, they would also generate new currency. Transactions would be broadcast to the network, and computers running the software would compete to solve irreversible cryptographic puzzles that contain data from several transactions. The first miner to solve each puzzle would be awarded 50 new bitcoins, and the associated block of transactions would be added to the chain. The difficulty of each puzzle would increase as the number of miners increased, which would keep production to one block of transactions roughly every 10 minutes. In addition, the size of each block bounty would halve every 210,000 blocks – first from 50 bitcoins to 25, then from 25 to 12.5, and so on. Around the year 2140, the currency would reach its preordained limit of 21 million bitcoins."

(Benjamin Wallace, 23 November 2011, Wired Magazine)

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1990s2008anonymous system • b-money • bit gold • bitcoin • block chain • broadcast to the network • chain • clearinghouse • collective interests • collective participation • collective participation technology • corporeal strictures • credit card • cryptographer • cryptographic puzzle • cryptography • currency • cypherpunkDavid Chaumdecentralisation • digital currency • digital dollar • digital money • distribution models • double-spending • financial flowsfinancial transactionsfraudfree market economyglobal capital flowsinformation flowsinformation theoryinfrastructureJapan • ledger • libertarianism • Listservminermining • mining metaphor • P2Ppuzzle • pyramid scheme • RPOW • Satoshi Nakamoto • speculationspeculation and innovation • spending • trustvalue and benefit • virtual cash • Wired (magazine)

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
07 JULY 2012

Neoliberal whizz-kid: Aotearoa New Zealand PM John Key in 1987

"A 1987 video has been unearthed featuring a 25–year–old squash–playing, accountancy graduate John Key. The bright–eyed Mr Key features in an early Close–Up story called Big Dealers. The 'portrait of 80s job du jour: foreign exchange dealer', shows the now Prime Minister in 'the pit' (trading room) as a senior forex dealer. 'Forex dealing is a work hard, play hard world with an image of rich brats who wreck restaurants but always somewhere else,' says the reporter. 'I am not denying that, that has happened and I guess that will happen again in the future but I personally perform in that way,' Mr Key responded."

(Deanna Harris, 02 Sep 2010, MediaWorks TV)

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1980s1987 • 3 News • accountancy graduate • Aotearoa New Zealand • Big Dealers (television) • bright-eyed • businesscapital accumulationcapitalismChristchurch • Close-Up (television) • economyfinance • finance industry • financial dealingfinancial flowsfinancial gainfinancial innovationfinancial markets • financial risk • financial transactionsfinancing • foreign exchange • foreign exchange dealer • foreign exchange dealers • forex dealer • forex dealing • free market economyglobal capital flowsglobal financial marketJohn Keylifestyle • MediaWorks TV • money making • neoliberalismNew Zealand on Screen • NZ News • personal financial gain • Prime Ministerprofitrich bratriskrisk-takingsocial conservatism • squash-playing • stock marketstocks • trading room • TV3unit of capital accumulation • whizz-kid • winning • young upwardly-mobile professional • young urban professional • yuppie

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 JUNE 2009

Phillip Blond: Rise of the red Tories

"We live in a time of crisis. In such times humans retreat to safety, and build bulwarks against the future. The financial emergency is having this effect on Britain's governing class. Labour has withdrawn to the safety of the sheltering state, and the comforts of its first income tax rise since the mid–1970s. Meanwhile, the Conservatives appear to be proposing a repeat of Thatcherite austerity in the face of economic catastrophe. But this crisis is more than an ordinary recession. It represents a disintegration of the idea of the 'market state' and makes obsolete the political consensus of the last 30 years. A fresh analysis of the ruling ideological orthodoxy is required.
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On a deeper level, the present moment is a challenge to conservatism itself. The Conservatives are still viewed as the party of the free market, an idea that has collapsed into monopoly finance, big business and deregulated global capitalism. Tory social thinking has genuinely evolved, but the party's economic thinking is still poised between repetition and renewal. As late as August 2008 David Cameron said: 'I'm going to be as radical a social reformer as Margaret Thatcher was an economic reformer,' and that 'radical social reform is what this country needs right now.' He is right about society, but against the backdrop of collapsing markets and without a macro–economic alternative, Thatcherite economics has been wrongfooted by events."
(Phillip Blond, Prospect Magazine February 2009 issue 155)

TAGS

2009austeritycapitalismchange • civil association • conservatismConservativescrisisDavid Camerondecentralisation • financial emergency • free market economyglobal capitalismglobal financial crisisglobal financial systemLabour • late-modern • Margaret Thatcher • market state • mutualism • neoliberalism • Phillip Blond • politicspost-traditionalreformsocial change • social reform • stateTorytransformationUK • voluntary association

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
02 NOVEMBER 2008

The Global Reach of a New Discourse: How Far Can 'Creative Industries' Travel?

"A successful creative industries sector is highly dependent upon the socio–economic opportunities opened up for the 'organic, bottom–up development' of small enterprises characterised by 'flat hierarchy and project–based work patterns' and the clustering of autonomous, risk taking, and avant–garde freelance producers who specialise, among other things, in the post–broadcast media content production (Oakley, 77; Hartley and Cunningham, ??). We can hardly miss the sine qua non for the sector in those various definitions , i.e., a (free) market economy which takes competition, intellectual property rights, and most importantly, a commercialised culture industries sector, as givens."
(Jing Wang)

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2002bottom-upclusterconsumptioncreative industries • culture industries • discourse • flat hierarchy • free market economyfreelanceglobalisationJohn HartleymediaMITnew economyPeoples Republic of Chinapolicy • policy studies • post-broadcast media • projectQueenslandQUTriskStuart Cunningham • Wang

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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