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31 OCTOBER 2012

Constructivism: a recent perspective on learning with ancient roots

"Constructivism is a recent perspective or philosophy on learning with ancient roots (von Glasersfeld, 1995) that has extensive implications for the use of collaborative learning tools. In employing constructivism, some teachers believe that better learning occurs when knowledge is the result of a situated construction of reality (Brooks, 1990). Unfortunately, although constructivist revolutionaries have ventured onto the battlefield of epistemological change, most have not provided practicing educators with the wherewithal to reconstitute and embed constructivist ideas within their personal philosophies and teaching practices. Teachers might, in fact, design useful constructivistic learning environments and strategies, but may not recognize that they operate from a constructivist paradigm (Harris & Pressley, 1991). Even when constructivism is recognized as valuable, few guidelines exist for implementing and assessing it. So, when CSCL tools enter the instructional arsenal of public schools and higher education settings, constructivism may not be the theory of choice. And, undoubtedly, many scholars and researchers fuel this problem with intense debates that most practitioners simply lack the time and energy to deal with (e.g., see Ernest, 1995; von Glasersfeld, 1995).

Further muddying the debate, there is no canonical form of constructivist theory. Cobb (1994) identified two variations – cognitive constructivist and social constructivist – and there are undoubtedly more. Cognitive constructivists tend to draw insight from Piaget and focus on individual constructions of knowledge discovered in interaction with the environment ... Social constructivists rely more on Vygotsky (1978) and view learning as connection with and appropriation from the sociocultural context within which we are all immersed."

(Curtis Jay Bonk, Donald J. Cunningham and Kira S. King, p.32)

Bonk, Curtis Jay; Cunningham, Donald J. Bonk, Curtis Jay (Ed); King, Kira S. (Ed), (1998). "Searching for Learner–Centered, Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools" in Electronic collaborators: Learner–centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse., (pp. 25–50). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

TAGS

etter learning • canonical form • cognitive constructivist • collaborative learning tools • Computer Supported Collaborative Learningconstructivism • constructivist paradigm • constructivist theory • constructivistic learning environments • constructivistic learning strategies • CSCL • CSCL tools • Curtis Jay Bonk • Donald J. Cunningham • embed constructivist ideas • epistemological change • epistemological divergence • Ernst von Glasersfeld • individual constructions of knowledge • interaction with the environment • Jacqueline Grennon Brooks • Jean Piaget • Karen Harris • learningLev Vygotsky • Michael Pressley • Paul Cobb • Paul Ernest • personal philosophies • philosophy on learning • practicing educators • reconstitute constructivist ideas • situated construction of realitysocial constructivistsocio-constructivismsocio-constructivist • sociocultural context • teaching practices

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 OCTOBER 2012

LUDOLOGY MEETS NARRATOLOGY: Similitude and differences between (video)games and narrative

"Literary theory and narratology have been helpful to understand cybertexts and videogames. Aristotelian Poetics [Laurel, 1993], Russian formalism [Porush and Hivner, ?], and poststructuralism [Landow, 1992] are some of the different perspectives that have been used to study the subject.

Some authors see cybertexts and videogames as a new form of or as an expansion of traditional narrative or drama. The fact is that these computer programs share many elements with stories: characters, chained actions, endings, settings.

However, there is another dimension that has been usually almost ignored when studying this kind of computer software: to analyze them as games.

The problems of using a 'game' perspective are many. Basically, traditional games have always had less academic status than other objects, like narrative. And because of this, game formalist studies are fragmented through different disciplines, and not very well developed.

In this paper we will propose to explore videogames and cybertexts as games. Our intention is not to replace the narratologic approach, but to complement it. We want to better understand what is the relationship with narrative and videogames; their similarities and differences."

(Gonzalo Frasca, 1999)

Frasca, Gonzalo (1999) 'Ludology Meets Narratology. Similitude and Differences between (Video)games and Narrative'. Originally published in Finnish in Parnasso 1999: 3, 365–71.

TAGS

1999 • Albert Sidney Hornby • Andre Lalande • Aristotelian Poetics • Aristotles Poetics • Brenda Laurelcausalitycausally relatedcausally related narrative events • chained actions • character • Claude Bremond • computer programme • computer software • cybertext • cybertexts • Daniel Vidart • David Porush • ending • Espen AarsethFILE (festival) • game formalist studies • game perspective • game studiesgame theorygames • George Landow • Gerald Prince • Gonzalo Frasca • Jean Piagetliterary theory • ludology • narrative and videogames • narratologic approach • narratologynew form • Oswald Ducrot • post-structuralism • Roger Caillois • Roland Barthes • Russian formalism • Schaeffer Jean-Marie • setting • similarities and differences • stories • studying games • Todd Hivnor • traditional drama • traditional narrative • Umberto Ecovideo gamevideogames

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 JULY 2012

Gellof Kanselaar Research Education Psychology CSCL Learning

"Lev Vygotsky's (1896–1934) main relevance to constructivism derives from his theories about language, thought, and their mediation by society. He holds the anti–realist position that the process of knowing is rather a disjunctive one involving the agency of other people and mediated by community and culture. He sees collaborative action to be shaped in childhood when the convergence of speech and practical activity occurs and entails the instrumental use of social speech. Although in adulthood social speech is internalized (it becomes thought), Vygotsky contends, it still preserves its intrinsic collaborative character. "

(Gellof Kanselaar, 2002)

Kanselaar, Gellof, (2002). Unpublished paper about (Socio–)Constructivism.

TAGS

(Socio-)Constructivism • adulthood • agency of other people • anti-realist position • becomes thought • childhoodcollaborative action • collaborative character • constructivism • convergence of speech and practical activity • disjunctive • education • education psychology • educational psychology • Gellof Kanselaar • instrumental use of social speech • internalised • Jean Piaget • Lev Semenovich Vygotsky • Lev Vygotsky • mediated by community and culture • mediation by society • process of knowing • psychology • shaped in childhood • social construction of knowledge • social speech • socio-constructivismsocio-constructivist • theories about language • thought • unpublished paper

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
25 FEBRUARY 2011

Cognitive Constructivist Theory

Jean "Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that humans cannot be 'given' information which they immediately understand and use. Instead, humans must 'construct' their own knowledge. They build their knowledge through experience. Experiences enable them to create schemas – mental models in their heads. These schemas are changed, enlarged, and made more sophisticated through two complimentary processes: assimilation and accommodation."

(Irene Chen)

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TAGS

accommodation • assimilationcognitioncognitive constructivism • cognitive development • experienceinformationJean Piagetknowledgelearningmental modelspedagogy • schemas • theoryunderstanding

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 DECEMBER 2010

e-Pedagogy & e-Assessment: new kinds of learning

"The changing environment facilitates new kinds of learning. Teachers have traditionally focussed on content; indeed, many consider the identification and delivery of learning material to be their prime role. It is through this role that they seek to direct learning. But it has been argued that this traditional teaching skill is redundant in today's information–rich learning environment."

(Bobby Elliott, CAA Conference 2008)

Elliott, B. (2008). 'E–Pedagogy & E–Assessment'. 12th CAA Conference: Research into E–Assessment. Loughborough, UK, Loughborough University.

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TAGS

2008Assessment 2.0assimilationbehaviourismblackboard • CAA • changecognitive dissonance • cognitivism • collaboration • Computer Assisted Assessment • conferenceconnectivismconstructivismcontente-assessmente-learning • e-moderation • e-pedagogyeducationengagementfacilitationguide on the sideICTinformation-richJean Piagetknowledgelearninglearning environmentlearning materialsLev VygotskyLoughborough Universitymental modelsMoodle • network learning • participationparticipatory learningpedagogy • proceedings • RSSsage on the stage • Scottish Qualifications Agency • Second Life (SL)social changesocial constructionismsocial constructivismsocial interaction • social nature of learning • teachersteachingtraditiontransformationubiquitous computingVLEWeb 2.0 • zone of proximal development

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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