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23 MARCH 2012

Autumn 2012: Design and Social Innovation

"There is a growing interest in the role that design can play in catalysing, harnessing, spreading and scaling social innovation around the world. This is expressed in two key ways:

> by a growing number of professional designers and design disciplines applying their skills to addressing social issues; and

> by the adoption of design tools, techniques and methods by a growing number of other disciplines focused on developing social innovation.

Perhaps the most recognisable facet of this interest has been the rise of 'design thinking' not only in business, but increasingly in public service and policy fields. Fuelled by design agencies such as IDEO in the US, non–profit bodies such as the Design Council in the UK, and education institutions such as Stanford's 'd.school', design thinking has begun to be recognised as a key ingredient underpinning innovation (whether that be social innovation or not). Indeed, according to Sir George Cox, past chairman of the Design Council, design is what bridges creativity (the generation of new ideas) and innovation (the successful implementation of new ideas). In other words, design could be described as:

'the human power to conceive, plan, and realize products that serve human beings in the accomplishment of any individual or collective purpose' (Richard Buchanan, 2001)."

(Ingrid Burkett, Knowledge Connect)

Fig.1 AT.AW [http://www.at–aw.com]

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TAGS

2012action learning • catalysing social innovation • change observercitizenshipcivil societyclients • collective purpose • community services • conceive ideas • constituents • consumersCourtney Drake • critical insight • critical literature • critical thinking • cross-sector • d.school • deign approaches • design agenciesdesign approaches • design bridges creativity and innovation • Design Council (UK)design disciplinesdesign fielddesign innovationdesign methodsDesign Observer (magazine)design techniquesdesign thinkingdesign toolsdesignersdifferent perspectives • diversity of disciplines • education institutions • George Cox • harnessing social innovation • idea generationIDEO • individual purpose • Jacqueline Wechsler • Joanne Hutchinson • logframe • logframe analysis • long-term change • NESTAnew ideas • Open Book of Social Innovation • plan ideas • political reactionism • previous learning • professional designersprototypingpublic policy • public service • public services • real change • realise products • Richard Buchanan • scaling social innovation • School of Management • School of Visual Arts in New York • service implementation • serving human beings • significant change • social design • social ills • social innovation • Social Innovation Branch in DEEWR • social interventionsocial issuessocial policysocial sciencesocial sector • spreading social innovation • Stanford Universitystrategic planning • strategy and planning • successful implementation • the role that design • underpinning innovation • User-Centred Design (UCD)users • Vera Sacchetti • William DrenttelYale University • Young Foundation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
13 OCTOBER 2011

An interactive system defines a virtual space

"An interactive system defines a virtual space, whether the system's interface provides access to the inhospitable planet of Stroggos or the Microsoft Windows desktop. Users of both these systems interact with a place, one created by a computer and in which users and computational agents carry out their individual and collective activities. The intuitive and often–discussed benefit of a well–designed interface metaphor is that it allows users to carry over conventions from their 'real' experience when performing tasks within the interface world.

Another key and often unarticulated value of an interface arises from the interface's mimetic quality. While mimesis is often discussed by narrative theorists as a contrast to diegesis, distinguishing the concepts of showing versus telling (Aristotle), my emphasis here is to distinguish between an artifact that is intended to be an imitation of something, but is not really that thing and an artifact that is intended to be mistaken as that thing. An example of the former case would be a film of a fictional account of the D–Day landing on the beaches of Normandy. An example of the later might be a virtual reality system displaying photo–realistic graphical images of a physical space. D–Days stories like The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan are, in some ways, imitations, and so are more mimetic than VR systems whose design is intended to '...produce synthetic images visually and measurably indistinguishable from real world images.' (Greenberg 1999)(pg. 45)."

(R. Michael Young, 1999)

Greenberg, D. P. 1999. 'A framework for realistic image synthesis'. Communications of the ACM 42(8):45–53.

1). R. Michael Young (1999). 'Notes on the Use of Plan Structures in the Creation of Interactive Plot', Papers from the 1999 Fall Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence Symposium

TAGS

1999 • AAAI • AristotleAssociation for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence • computational agents • conventionsD-Day landingdesktop metaphordiegesis • Donald P. Greenberg • fictional account • graphical images • image synthesis • imitation of something • imitations • interact with a place • interactive narrative • interactive system • interface metaphor • interface world • intuitiveMicrosoft Windowsmimesis • mimetic quality • mistaken as that thing • narrative theory • Normandy • performing tasks • photo-realistic • physical space • real experience • real world images • realism • Saving Private Ryan • showing • stories • Stroggos • synthetic images • telling • The Longest Day • usersvirtual heritagevirtual realityvirtual reality systemvirtual space • VR systems • WWII

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 JUNE 2011

Beyond Usability: Process, Outcome and Affect in human computer interactions

"Currently, our best theories are limited in terms of their applicability to design. However, we cannot retreat into the easy empiricism of current usability perspectives where everything is measured in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Theory building must occur if we are to have long term impact and the diversity of experiences users can have with technology are not simply reduced to these operational criteria. We need to stretch our conception of interaction beyond performance and simple likes/dislikes. I argue for a richer sense of user experience, one that allows for aesthetics as much as efficiency and the creation of community discourse forms over time as much as the measurement of effectiveness in a single task. There is much work ahead but unless we embrace these issues as part of our research agenda, then the study of HCI will forever be piecemeal and weak, and its results will find little positive reception among the many designers and consumers who could most benefit from them."

(Andrew Dillon)

Dillon, A. (2001) Beyond usability: process, outcome and affect in human–computer interactions. Canadian Journal of Library and Information Science, 26(4), 57–69.

[Dillon argues for a richer sense of what constitutes web usability and resists the easy empiricism espoused by most usability engineers.]

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TAGS

aestheticsamateurism • Andrew Dillon • crisis of empiricism • cult of the amateur • diversity of experienceseasy empiricism • effectiveness • efficiencyengineeringHCImeasurementoperational criteriaperformanceperformativitypseudo science of web usabilitypseudosciencepsychologyrich user experiencesatisfactionsimple evaluationssingle task • stretch our conceptions • theoretical contexttheoretical reflectionuninformed perspectivesusability • usability perspectives • user experienceusers • web usability • web usability science

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 NOVEMBER 2010

Interactive Toys: enabling toys to form relationships with users

"Interactive toys have real time conversations with users, preferably employing speech recognition. ... Content is provided to users for their toys which enables toys to form relationships with users. Interactive Toys further utilize user knowledge bases to match entertainment, education and sales promotion content to user histories, behaviors and habits. Content is thus personalized to an individual user as well as to a user's environment including the user's location and the time at which the toy is used. Integration of content, such as entertainment, education and sales promotion is provided by merging Interactive Television techniques with Interactive Toys."

(10 August 2004)

Gabai, O., J. Gabai, et al. (2004). Methods and apparatus for integration of interactive toys with interactive television and cellular communication systems. United States, Creator Ltd. (Shmuel, IL).

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TAGS

2004apparatusbehaviourconnectivityconvergencedeviceentertainmenthabitindividualisationinformation in contextinnovationinteractioninteractive toylocationlocation awarenesspatentpersonalisationproduct designreal-timerelationship • sales promotion • sociable robotspeech recognitiontechnologytoyusability • user awareness • user preferences • user-specific knowledge • users

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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