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Which clippings match 'Peer Learning' keyword pg.1 of 1
27 JUNE 2014

Collaborative peer learning through pair programming

"Pair programming is a style of programming in which two programmers work side–by–side at one computer, continuously collaborating on the same design, algorithm, code, or test. One of the pair, called the driver, types at the computer or writes down a design. The other partner, called the navigator, has many jobs. One is to observe the work of the driver, looking for defects. The navigator also has a more objective point of view and is the strategic, long–range thinker. Together, the driver and the navigator continuously brainstorm a solution. Periodically, the programmers switch roles between the driver and the navigator."

(Laurie Williams, 2007)

Williams, L. (2007). "Lessons learned from seven years of pair programming at North Carolina State University." SIGCSE Bull. 39(4): 79–83.



active learning • brainstorming solutions • co-learnercollaborative learningcomputer programming education • continuously collaborating • design pedagogy • design roles • design teams • driver (peer learning) • Laurie Williams • learn to codelearning is socially enactedlearning processlearning software • learning strategies • learning support • navigator (peer learning) • North Carolina State University • pair programming • participatory learningpedagogic approachespedagogic practicespeer instructionpeer learningpeer-production • role specialisation • side-by-side • social learningsocial-constructivist approachsoftware programmingtechnology educationworking practicesworking together


Liam Birtles
19 NOVEMBER 2012

Using Individual Weighting Factor to fairly recognise and compensate individual contributions to group work

"The modified pool of marks technique will not, however, overcome a fundamental weakness of the procedure, namely that the students have to allocate a fixed pool of marks or points. This can be difficult to do using whole numbers. For example, if eight marks are to be allocated between four people and one is given four of them it is not possible to give all the rest the same mark. An alternative technique is to allow the students to allocate marks freely and then calculate an individual weighting factor based on the ratio between the individual score and the average score for all members of the group. This has the advantage of avoiding putting students in the situation where for every additional mark they give to one individual they have to take a mark off another individual. Indeed this is confirmed where a scale of marks is used and students are unconstrained in the marks that they can allocate. In this situation they show a reluctance to make much use of the lower end of the scale and consequently the mean score is well above the middle (average) point of the scale (Conway et al, 1993). Next year, in addition to using the modified pool of marks technique, a variant on the technique used by Conway et al (1993) will also be employed (Appendix 3). This technique awards the group mark to a student who makes an average contribution. Those who make greater (or lesser) contributions receive more (or less) than the original group mark. The method of calculation is described in Appendix 4."

(Mick Healey, 1993, p.4)

Mick Healey "Developing Student Capability Using Peer and Self Assessment: A Preliminary Evaluation of The Distribution of a Pool of Marks Technique for Assessing The Contribution of Individuals to a Group Project", Using Assessment to Develop Capability conference, 1993.


1993accountabilityassessment criteriaassessment for learningassessment techniques • Atara Sivan • contribution to the group • David Kember • fairnessgrading schemegroup work • Higher Education for Capability (HEC) • individual accountability • individual contribution • Individual Weighting Factor • learning and teaching • May Wu • measurementmeasuring individual performancemeasuring instrument • Mick Healey • modified pool of marks technique • peer assessment • peer evaluationpeer learningproject work • Robert Conway • student performance


Simon Perkins
08 MAY 2012

Creative Contexts: work placements

"This site is part of the Higher Education Academy supported Creative Contexts: Work placements, peer learning and professional practice in the creative industries Teaching Development project.

The Creative Contexts website hosts short videos exploring work placements in the media creative industries, and foregrounds student stories and questions. Contributions from students of 3 minutes videos sit alongside employer perspectives and advice from educators.

Themes covered include: Identifying and securing work placements; insights into working with others; activities undertaken; how work placement experiences connect together; challenges encountered and response; and feelings and experiences of 'fitting in'."

(Daniel Ashton)

Fig.1 "Creative Contexts poster".



2012 • 3 minutes videos • advice • advice from educators • Bath Spa University • careerchallengescreative contexts • Creative Contexts website • creative industries • Daniel Ashton • design business • discussion materials • employer perspectives • employment • fitting in • gaining employmentHigher Education Academy • how work placement experiences connect together • industry realitiesjobs • media creative industries • online resourcepeer learningprofessional practice • securing work placements • short videos • student storiesstudents • teaching development • transition into post-graduate employmentUKvideoswebsitework placement • work placement resources • work placements • working with others • world of work


Simon Perkins
11 DECEMBER 2010

Personalising learning: learner-centred and knowledge-centred

"Personalising learning is... ...learner–centred and knowledge–centred: Close attention is paid to learners' knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes. Learning is connected to what they already know (including from outside the classroom). Teaching enthuses pupils and engages their interest in learning: it identifies, explores and corrects misconceptions. Learners are active and curious: they create their own hypotheses, ask their own questions, coach one another, set goals for themselves, monitor their progress and experiment with ideas for taking risks, knowing that mistakes and 'being stuck' are part of learning. Work is sufficiently varied and challenging to maintain their engagement but not so difficult as to discourage them. This engagement allows learners of all abilities to succeed, and it avoids the disaffection and attention–seeking that give rise to problems with behaviour.

...and assessment–centred: Assessment is both formative and summative and supports learning: learners monitor their progress and, with their teachers, identify their next steps. Techniques such as open questioning, sharing learning objectives and success criteria, and focused marking have a powerful effect on the extent to which learners are enabled to take an active role in their learning. Sufficient time is always given for learners' reflection. Whether individually or in pairs, they review what they have learnt and how they have learnt it. Their evaluations contribute to their understanding. They know their levels of achievement and make progress towards their goals. Stimulated by How people learn: brain, mind, experience and school (Bransford, J. D., A. L. Brown, et al.)."

(Teaching and Learning in 2020 Review Group, 2007, p.6)

Bransford J.D., Brown A. L. and Cocking R. (eds.), How people learn: brain, mind, experience and school, National Academy Press, Washington DC, 2000.

1). Teaching and Learning in 2020 Review Group (2007). '2020 Vision: Report of the Teaching and Learning in 2020'. Department for Education and Skills.



20072020 • active learners • assessment for learning • assessment-centred • BSF • building schools for the future • classroomcollaborationContinuing Professional DevelopmentCPDdiscoveryeducationengagementexperimentationformative assessment • hypothesis building • ICTindividualknowledge • knowledge-centred • learner-centredlearning guides • learning objectives • new technologiespedagogypeer learningpersonalisationpersonalised learningpersonalising learning • personalising teaching • reflection • School Improvement Partners • social constructionism • success criteria • summative assessmentteachingUKunderstanding


Simon Perkins
03 NOVEMBER 2010

High Tech High: building a high-tech work force

"High Tech High was originally conceived by a group of about 40 civic and high tech industry leaders in San Diego, assembled by the Economic Development Corporation and the Business Roundtable, who met regularly in 1996–98 to discuss the challenge of finding qualified individuals for the high–tech work force. In particular, members were concerned about the 'digital divide' that resulted in low numbers of women and ethnic minority groups entering the fields of maths, science, and engineering. Gary Jacobs, Director of Education Programs at Qualcomm, and Kay Davis, Director of the Business Roundtable, were key participants in these discussions.

In late 1998 the group voted to start a charter school and engaged Larry Rosenstock, then President of Price Charities in San Diego, as the founding principal. The founding group was clear about its intent: to create a school where students would be passionate about learning and would acquire the basic skills of work and citizenship. Rosenstock, a former carpentry teacher, lawyer, and high school principal who had recently directed the U.S. Department of Education's New Urban High School project, brought a vision and a sense of the design principles by which this mission might be accomplished (see Design Principles, below).

From January 1999 to the opening of the Gary & Jerri–Ann Jacobs High Tech High in September of 2000, Rosenstock and the founding group, led by Gary Jacobs, worked in tandem. Rosenstock located a site, prepared the charter application, hired staff, and oversaw the development of the program, while Jacobs and the business community took the lead in addressing issues of financing and facilities development."

(High Tech High Foundation)

Fig.1 Christopher Gerber/High Tech High



1996-98 • 2000business community • charter school • digital divideengineering • ethnic minority groups • Gary Jacobs • High Tech High • High Tech High Foundation • high-tech work force • horizontal relationships • innovation • Kay Davis • knowledge-based economyLarry Rosenstocklearningmaths • New Urban High School • participationpedagogypeer learningSan Diegosciencesocial practicesteachingtechnologywomenworkforceworld of work


Simon Perkins

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