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Which clippings match 'Mental Image' keyword pg.1 of 2
30 SEPTEMBER 2014

The now discredited hypodermic needle model of communication

"The Hypodermic Needle Theory is a linear communication theory which suggests that media messages are injected directly into the brains of a passive audience. It suggests that we're all the same and we all respond to media messages in the same way.

This way of thinking about communication and media influence is no longer really accepted. In the 1930s, many researchers realized the limitations of this idea and some dispute whether early media theorists gave the idea any serious attention at all. Nevertheless, The Hypodermic Needle Theory continues to influence the way we talk about the media. People believe that the mass media has a powerful effect. Parents worry about the influence of television and violent video games. News outlets run headlines like 'Is Google making us stupid' and 'Grand Theft Auto led teen to kill'."

(Brett Lamb, 12 April 2013)

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TAGS

1930sArthur Bergerassumptions • attitudinal attributes • behaviour systemsbehaviourism • Bernard Berelson • biologically based theory • communication theoryconceptual model • David Croteau • Dennis Davis • discredited theory • Elihu Katz • Hadley Cantril • Hazel Gaudet • Herta Herzog • human instinct • human nature • hypodermic needle model • hypodermic needle theory • hypodermic-syringe model • infusion • injection • James Tankard • linear communication theory • magic bullet theory • mass communicationmedia • media gun • media influence • mental imagemessagemodel of communication • obsolete theory • passive audience • Paul Lazarsfeld • propaganda • shooting metaphor • sitting duck • situational attributes • Stanley Baran • theory of communication • transmission-belt model • unidirectional flow • uniformly controlled • Werner Severin • William Hoynes

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 JULY 2014

An animated primer on the use of metaphors

"How do metaphors help us better understand the world? And, what makes a good metaphor? Explore these questions with writers like Langston Hughes and Carl Sandburg, who have mastered the art of bringing a scene or emotion to life."

(Jane Hirshfield and Ben Pearce, TED–Ed)

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TAGS

Ben Pearce • Carl Sandburg • choice of wordscomprehending languagedepiction • depictions of real-life • figurative languagehaikuindirect reference • Jane Hirshfield • Langston Hughes • literary devices • literary technique • mental imagemetaphormetaphoric referencemetaphorical representationpoetic function • simile • TED-Edthoughts and feelingsuse of words

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
11 FEBRUARY 2013

George Orwell: Politics and the English Language

"Dying metaphors. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically 'dead' (e.g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn–out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles' heel, swan song, hotbed. Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a 'rift,' for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is sometimes written as tow the line. Another example is the hammer and the anvil, now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase."

(George Orwell)

George Orwell (1950). "Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays", Secker & Warburg Publishers, UK.

TAGS

1946allusion • artful • clarity of thoughtcliche • colloquial lexicon • common metaphorscommunicationcomprehending language • connotation • dying metaphors • EnglishEnglish language • evocative power • expressionexpressive repertoirefigurative languagefigure of speechGeorge Orwellhackneyedidiomimaginative metaphorsindirect reference • inventing phrases • languagelanguage developmentlazinessliteraturemental imagemetaphor • mixed metaphor • ordinary word • poetic devices • poetic functionsentence • tired expressions • use of wordsverbal freshness • visual image • vividness • worn-out • writing • writing style • writing tips

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 MARCH 2012

The importance of metaphor and narrative to our habits of mind

"Fiction – with its redolent details, imaginative metaphors and attentive descriptions of people and their actions – offers an especially rich replica. Indeed, in one respect novels go beyond simulating reality to give readers an experience unavailable off the page: the opportunity to enter fully into other people's thoughts and feelings.

The novel, of course, is an unequaled medium for the exploration of human social and emotional life. And there is evidence that just as the brain responds to depictions of smells and textures and movements as if they were the real thing, so it treats the interactions among fictional characters as something like real–life social encounters."

(Annie Murphy Paul, 17 March 2012, NYTimes.com)

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TAGS

affirming experience • booksbrainbrain networksbrain science • cause and effect • cognitive mapcomplex problemscomputer simulationdepictiondescription • emotional life • empathetic individuals • empathyexperiencefictional charactersfrustration • great literature • habits of mind • hidden motives • imaginative metaphors • intentions • interacting instances • languageliterature • longings • mental image • mental state • metaphornarrativenarrative fiction • navigate interactions • neurosciencenovelsoff the page • people and their actions • psychologyreaders • reading novels • real thingreal-life • redolent details • rich replica • simulating reality • simulationsmell • social encounters • social interactionsocial interactionssocial lifesocial worldtexture • the complexities of social life • theory of mindthoughts and feelingswatching television • your brain

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 FEBRUARY 2012

Adrift in a shopping maze: it's a successful no-exit strategy

"Alan Penn, director of the Virtual Reality Centre for the Built Environment at University College London, has come to a conclusion that Ikea stores are 'designed just like a maze'. In doing so he's given scholarly validation to a feeling that will have occurred to many shoppers as they blunder around the blue and yellow hangar looking for a new TV unit only to emerge with two candles, a wok and a bottle of lingonberry cordial.

Penn went on to suggest that it was Ikea's strategy to keep customers inside the store for the maximum time possible. They achieve this by setting a route round the store from which it's difficult to deviate. Taking the shortcuts (which are only there to conform with fire regulations) often leaves you adrift in a sea of lampshades.

The effect is to boost impulse purchases. See a coathanger, and you might buy 'because the layout is so confusing you know you won't be able to go back and get it later'."

(Ian Tucker, 30 January 2011, The Observer, Guardian News and Media Limited)

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TAGS

a sea of lampshades • adrift • Alan Penn • circulation • coathanger • cognitive map • confusing • customersdesigndirectional informationexperience design • floor plan • IKEA • Ikea stores • impulse buy • impulse purchase • layout • maze • mental imagenavigationno escape • no-exit • organising spacesprogrammatic spaceroutesensemakingsequence of spacesshopping experiencespatial designspatial literacyspatial narrative • spatial sequence • store • store designtrappedUniversity College London • Virtual Reality Centre for the Built Environment • wayfindingyou are here

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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