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06 MARCH 2015

Sexed up: theorizing the sexualization of culture

"This paper reviews and examines emerging academic approaches to the study of ‘sexualized culture’; an examination made necessary by contemporary preoccupations with sexual values, practices and identities, the emergence of new forms of sexual experience and the apparent breakdown of rules, categories and regulations designed to keep the obscene at bay. The paper maps out some key themes and preoccupations in recent academic writing on sex and sexuality, especially those relating to the contemporary or emerging characteristics of sexual discourse. The key issues of pornographication and democratization, taste formations, postmodern sex and intimacy, and sexual citizenship are explored in detail."

(Feona Attwood, 2006)

ATTWOOD, F. (2006). Sexed up: theorizing the sexualization of culture. Sexualities, 9 (1), 77-94.


2006Anthony Giddens • attitudes to sex • auto-eroticism • Brian McNair • Brigid Costello • casual sex • Catharine Lumby • commercial sex services • consumption spectacle • contemporary sexual discourse • cybersex • David Bell • David Buckingham • David Evans • Debbie Stoller • Dennis Altman • diverse sexual identities • Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim • email affairs • erotic life • Eva Illouz • excitation • female sexualityfemininity • Feona Attwood • gender relations • hedonism • Hilary Radner • Imelda Whelehan • intimate relations • Jane Arthurs • Jane Juffer • Jeffrey Weeks • Jon Binnie • Joseph Bristow • Juniper Wiley • Kenneth Plummer • liquid love • literature review • Mandy Merck • Marcelle Karp • Marj Kibby • Mark Jancovich • Michel Foucault • Natasha Forrest • obscenityonline datingpersonal life • personal relationships • phone sex • physical pleasure • physical sensation • plastic sexuality • pornographication • postmodern sex • radical sexual politics • renewable pleasures • romantic encounters • romantic relationships • Rosalind Gill • Rosalind Given-Wilson • Sara Bragg • sex and commitment • sex and reproduction • sex toysexismsexual behaviour • sexual citizenship • sexual commodification • sexual democratisation • sexual desire • sexual discourse • sexual encounter • sexual experience • sexual fitness • sexual identities • sexual intimacy • sexual meaning • sexual objectification • sexual obscenity • sexual practices • sexual preoccupation • sexual propriety • sexual regulation • sexual representation • sexual sensibilities • sexual subjectification • sexual values • sexualised culture • sexualised depictionssexuality • sexualization • sexually explicit texts • Sheffield Hallam University • SHURA • Simon Hardy • Stacy Gillis • taste formations • transient pleasures • Ulrich Beck • Walter Kendrick • William Simon • Zygmunt Bauman


Simon Perkins

Mediated environments: we must learn to write themselves into being

"In everyday interactions, the body serves as a critical site of identity performance. In conveying who we are to other people, we use our bodies to project information about ourselves.[32] This is done through movement, clothes, speech, and facial expressions. What we put forward is our best effort at what we want to say about who we are. Yet while we intend to convey one impression, our performance is not always interpreted as we might expect. Through learning to make sense of others' responses to our behavior, we can assess how well we have conveyed what we intended. We can then alter our performance accordingly. This process of performance, interpretation, and adjustment is what Erving Goffman calls impression management,[33] and is briefly discussed in the introduction to this volume. Impression management is a part of a larger process where people seek to define a situation[34] through their behavior. People seek to define social situations by using contextual cues from the environment around them. Social norms emerge out of situational definitions, as people learn to read cues from the environment and the people present to understand what is appropriate behavior.

Learning how to manage impressions is a critical social skill that is honed through experience. Over time, we learn how to make meaning out of a situation, others' reactions, and what we are projecting of ourselves. As children, we learn that actions on our part prompt reactions by adults; as we grow older, we learn to interpret these reactions and adjust our behavior. Diverse social environments help people develop these skills because they force individuals to reevaluate the signals they take for granted.

The process of learning to read social cues and react accordingly is core to being socialized into a society. While the process itself begins at home for young children, it is critical for young people to engage in broader social settings to develop these skills. Of course, how children are taught about situations and impression management varies greatly by culture,[35] but these processes are regularly seen as part of coming of age. While no one is ever a true master of impression management, the teenage years are ripe with opportunities to develop these skills.

In mediated environments, bodies are not immediately visible and the skills people need to interpret situations and manage impressions are different. As Jenny Sundén argues, people must learn to write themselves into being.[36] Doing so makes visible how much we take the body for granted. While text, images, audio, and video all provide valuable means for developing a virtual presence, the act of articulation differs from how we convey meaningful information through our bodies. This process also makes explicit the self–reflexivity that Giddens argues is necessary for identity formation, but the choices individuals make in crafting a digital body highlight the self–monitoring that Foucault describes.[37]

In some sense, people have more control online–they are able to carefully choose what information to put forward, thereby eliminating visceral reactions that might have seeped out in everyday communication. At the same time, these digital bodies are fundamentally coarser, making it far easier to misinterpret what someone is expressing. Furthermore, as Amy Bruckman shows, key information about a person's body is often present online, even when that person is trying to act deceptively; for example, people are relatively good at detecting when someone is a man even when they profess to be a woman online.[38] Yet because mediated environments reveal different signals, the mechanisms of deception differ.[39] "

(Danah Boyd 2008, p.128–129)

[32] Fred Davis, Fashion, Culture and Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).

[33] Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 1956).

[34] Erving Goffman, Behavior in Public Places (New York: The Free Press, 1963).

[35] Jean Briggs, Inuit Morality Play: The Emotional Education of a Three–Year–Old (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999).

[36] Jenny Sundén, Material Virtualities (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2003).

[37] See David Buckingham's introduction to this volume for a greater discussion of this.

[38] Joshua Berman and Amy Bruckman, The Turing Game: Exploring Identity in an Online Environment, Convergence 7, no. 3 (2001): 83–102.

[39] Judith Donath, Identity and Deception in the Virtual Community, Communities in Cyberspace, eds. Marc Smith and Peter Kollock (London: Routledge, 1999).

1). Boyd, D. (2008). Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life. Youth, Identity, and Digital Media. D. Buckingham. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press: 119–142.



Simon Perkins

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