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Which clippings match 'Third Reich' keyword pg.1 of 1
16 JANUARY 2013

Call to Order: the pretentious sterility of culture

"In a masterstroke of design, the curator of Chaos and Classicism, Kenneth Silver, chose a work of art to illustrate the Nazi annexation of neoclassicism that at first glance is anything but threatening. The Four Elements by Adolf Ziegler decorated the walls of Hitler's Munich apartment. A member of the Nazi Party, Ziegler was charged by Hitler in 1937 to stage–manage the purge of modern art in the notorious Exhibition of Degenerate Art. Ziegler's depiction of four nude women who symbolize fire, earth, air and water, the four elements of nature recognized in antiquity, personifies little but the pretentious sterility of culture under the Third Reich. Yet, it is the perfect embodiment of the banality of evil."

(Ed Voves, 4 October 2010)

Fig.1 Adolf Ziegler, The Four Elements: Fire, Water and Earth, Air, (Die vier Elemente. Feuer, Wasser und Erde, Luft), before 1937, Oil on canvas, three panels, left to right: 170.3 x 85.2 cm, 171 x 190.8 cm, and 161.3 x 76.7 cm, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Sammlung Moderner Kunst in der Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich.



1937Adolf Hitler • Adolf Ziegler • air • antiquitybanalitycall to orderchaos and classicismclassical beautyclassical formcorrectioncultural productionEarth • elements • emasculation • essential elements of artessentialismExhibition of Degenerate Artfascismfire • Kenneth Silver • masterstroke of design • modern artmodernismMunichnatureNazi • Nazi Party • neoclassical revivalneoclassicismnude women • pretentious sterility of culture • purificationpurity • racial purity • return to ordersterility • The Four Elements • Third Reichwaterwork of art


Simon Perkins

Auftragstaktik: individual initiative, independent decision-making

'Auftragstaktik' means more than the terms usually employed in English, 'mission orders' or 'mission–oriented tactics.' Assuredly, it does. Auftragstaktik subsumes all the following concepts: individual initiative, independent decision–making, and thinking leaders reaching tactical decisions on their own accord. In short, a commander would specify to subordinates what to do, not how to do it.'
(David M. Keithly and Stephen P. Ferris)

Fig.1 Friedrich Zschäckel (1943). Sowjetunion, Kursk.– 'Unternehmen Zitadelle'.– Soldaten der Waffen–SS–Division 'Das Reich' vor Panzer VI 'Tiger I'; SS–PK. B. I.–P. d. W.–. Waffen–SS.



Auftrag and Taktik • Auftragstaktik • Fuhren mit Auftrag • independent decision-makingindividual initiative • military tactics • mission command • mission outcomes approach • mission-type tactics • Nazi • Panzer • panzer division • panzerdivision • tactictactical engagementtankThird Reich


Simon Perkins
31 AUGUST 2007

Hitler's Hit Parade: Modernist Cultural Production of the Third Reich

"Hitler's Hit Parade is a composition of archival footage from movies, amateur–, animated–, and educational films, commercials and propaganda – accompanied by dance and popular music from the Third Reich.

The film is structured along thematic chapters, each accompanied by a song and introduced by a headline in the style of the period. In the form of an artistic collage, the film uses a musical thread, to lead the audience through experiences and ideas of the Nazi era.

In contrast to still images – from painter Otto Dix to the Bauhaus – this collage is composed of living pictures. From a wealth of situations in the original material, a portrait of a modern civilization slowly emerges, in which beauty and evil flourish side by side. The lyrics and melodies of the songs serve both as a complement and contrast to the footage.

By foregoing didactic narration, Hitler's Hit Parade addresses audiences, who are well versed in the historical facts of the time, on an emotional level. Open–minded viewers are thus offered a broad perspective on the problems inherent in passing judgment on the Nazi

Rather than adopting a typical distanced approach, the film invites viewers to shed their usual safe distance looking back in time from the outside – and to allow a view from the inside on this journey through the Third Reich.

In witnessing numerous situations and examples of human behavior, the viewer is tempted to identify with the figures on screen, and is forced to ask himself what roles he could, would, or should have taken on during this period.

In a subtle manner, Hitler'S Hit Parade analyses the enticing components of highly progressive, extremely modern Nazi Germany, and how at the same time a cultivated people could be reduced to a moral and physical heap of rubble as a result of the Nazi madness."
(German Documentaries)

"This Franco–German [film] production explores the impact of Nazi propaganda on music and art during the regime.
When the Nazis rose to power, Germany was at the height of its intellectual and artistic brilliance, and boasted some of the most eminent poets, artists, musicians and scientists in the world. The propaganda model created by Hitler and his followers was confusingly imposed on this state of affairs. Accompanied by a vortex of contradictions, the outcome was a repertory of styles and world visions ranging for idolatry of the most brazen and monumental classicism to decidedly lightweight (or even low–brow) taste, at times with indiscriminate crossovers involving the artistic circles, life styles and kinds of tastes officially execrated by the regime: modernism, jazz and homo– and heterosexual insinuations verging on licentiousness."
(Giorgio Cini Foundation)

[This film was screened on the Arte channel (France TV) on Monday the 27 August 2007 at 11:55 (Lundi 27 août 2007 de 23h55).]

Fig. 1,2,3,4. Oliver Axer and Susanne Benze (2003). Les Refrains du Nazisme [English title: Hitler's Hit Parade], C. Cay Wesnigk Filmproduktion: 76 minutes.



2003amateurappropriation • archival footage • artartistic practiceBauhaus School • C. Cay Wesnigk Filmproduktion • cinemacollagecultural production • Deutsches Reich • filmfootageGerman cinemaGermany • Hitlers Hit Parade • Les Refrains du Nazisme • modernismmusicmusic videoNazi • Oliver Axer • Otto Dix • propagandare-purposeremix culturerevisionismsequence design • Susanne Benze • Third ReichWeimar Republic
22 APRIL 2005

Heartfield: Political Commentary Through Photomontage

"Exposing Nazism, and its leaders, to ridicule was [John] Heartfield's main aim in the 30s. 'The Meaning of the Hitler Salute' shows Hitler's right hand accepting a wad of bank notes from a gigantic bourgeois standing behind him. ''Little man requests big donation. Motto: Millions are behind me.

Heartfield was an early pioneer of photomontage. He used it as a political weapon to challenge fascism prior to the 2nd World War. For Heartfield ''New political problems demand[ed] new means of propaganda. For this task photography [possessed] the greatest power of persuasion."

(The Leninist, 1992)

Fig.1 John Heartfield (1932). Der Sinn des Hitlergrusses: Kleiner Mann bittet um große Gaben. Motto: Millonen Stehen Hinter Mir! [The Meaning of the Hitler Salute: Little man asks for big gifts. Motto: Millions Stand Behind Me!], 1932 [–of–art/1987.1125.8]



1932 • activismAdolf Hitleranglophobia • character portrait • fotomontageGermanguerrilla tacticsHelmut HerzfeldJohn HeartfieldNaziparodypersuasionphotographyphotomontagepolitical • political poster • propagandaridiculetacticThird Reichundermineupstaging

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