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12 FEBRUARY 2012

John Sturges: Gunfight at the O. K. Corral

"John Sturges is a rather curious case in Hollywood history: a director responsible for a trio of extremely famous films, films whose titles have all but entered the language (Gunfight at the OK Corral, The Magnificent Seven and The Great Escape) but with whose own name only specialists are conversant."

(The Independent, 24 August 1992)

Fig.1 Intro to "Gunfight at the O. K. Corral" by John Sturges starring Burt Lancaster and Kirk Douglas. Soundtrack "Gunfight at the O.K. Corral", lyrics by Ned Washington, music by Dimitri Tiomkin, performed by Frankie Laine: Ok corral ok corral; there the outlaw band make their final stand; ok corral; oh my dearest one must die; lay down my gun or take the chance of losing you forever; duty calls; my backs against the wall; have you no kind word to say; before i ride away; away; Your love your love; i need; your love; Keep the flame let it burn; until i return; from the gunfight at ok corral; if the lord is my friend; we'll meet at the end; Of the gunfight at ok corral; gunfight at ok corral; Boot hill Boot hill; so cold so still; There they lay side by side; the killers that died; in the gunfight at ok corral; ok corral; gunfight at ok corral.

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TAGS

1910 • 19571992anonymityapprenticeship • Boot Hill • Burt Lancaster • classic western • corral • Dimitri Tiomkin • feature filmfilmfilm directorfilm studiesfilms • Frankie Laine • good company man • gunfight • Gunfight at the OK Corral • gunfighterHollywood • honour • honourable • John Sturges • Kirk Douglas • Leonard Maltin • masculinity • movie director • Ned Washington • obituarypassed away • prolific career • recognition • RKO • salarymanscreenplayscript • studio man • studio system • The Great Escape • The Magnificent Sevenwestern film genre

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 JULY 2010

Defining visual thinking and visual literacy

"Wileman (1993) defines visual literacy as 'the ability to 'read,' interpret, and understand information presented in pictorial or graphic images' (p. 114). Associated with visual literacy is visual thinking, described as 'the ability to turn information of all types into pictures, graphics, or forms that help communicate the information' (Wileman, p. 114). A similar definition for visual literacy is 'the learned ability to interpret visual messages accurately and to create such messages' (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1999, p. 64). The ERIC definition of visual literacy is 'a group of competencies that allows humans to discriminate and interpret the visible action, objects, and/or symbols, natural or constructed, that they encounter in the environment' (http://searcheric.org/). Robinson (as quoted in Sinatra, 1986) describes visual literacy as 'an organizing force in promoting understanding, retention, and recall of so many academic concepts with which students must contend' (p. v). And lastly, Sinatra defines visual literacy as 'the active reconstruction of past visual experience with incoming visual messages to obtain meaning' (p. 5), with the emphasis on the action by the learner to create recognition.

The use and interpretation of images is a specific language in the sense that images are used to communicate messages that must be decoded in order to have meaning (Branton, 1999; Emery & Flood, 1998). If visual literacy is regarded as a language, then there is a need to know how to communicate using this language, which includes being alert to visual messages and critically reading or viewing images as the language of the messages. Visual literacy, like language literacy, is culturally specific although there are universal symbols or visual images that are globally understood."

(Suzanne Stokes, 2002)

[1] The Occasional Wife

[2] Stokes, S. (2002). "Visual literacy in teaching and learning: A literature perspective." Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education 1(1).

Branton, B. (1999). Visual literacy literature review. Retrieved December 26, 2001, from http://vicu.utoronto.ca/staff/branton/litreview.html

Emery, L., & Flood, A. (1998). Visual literacy. Retrieved September 22, 1999, from University of Canberra, Australian Centre for Arts Education Web site: http://education.canberra.edu.au/centres/acae/literacy/litpapers/vislit.htm

Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. D., & Smaldino, S. E. (1999). Instructional media and technologies for learning (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice–Hall.

Sinatra, R. (1986). Visual literacy connections to thinking, reading and writing. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Wileman, R. E. (1993). Visual communicating. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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