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Which clippings match 'Paradigm Shift' keyword pg.1 of 1
20 APRIL 2015

Normal-scientific research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies

"Mop-ping-up operations are what engage most scientists throughout their careers. They constitute what I am here calling normal science. Closely examined, whether historically or in the contemporary laboratory, that enterprise seems an attempt to force nature into the preformed and relatively inflexible box that the paradigm supplies. No part of the aim of normal science is to call forth new sorts of phenomena; indeed those that will not fit the box are often not seen at all. Nor do scientists normally aim to invent new theories, and they are often intolerant of those invented by others.[1] Instead, normal-scientific research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies.

Perhaps these are defects. The areas investigated by normal science are, of course, minuscule; the enterprise now under discussion has drastically restricted vision. But those restrictions, born from confidence in a paradigm, turn out to be essential to the development of science. By focusing attention upon a small range of relatively esoteric problems, the paradigm forces scientists to investigate some part of nature in a detail and depth that would otherwise be unimaginable. And normal science possesses a built-in mechanism that ensures the relaxation of the restrictions that bound research whenever the paradigm from which they derive ceases to function effectively. At that point scientists begin to behave differently, and the nature of their research problems changes. In the interim, however, during the period when the paradigm is successful, the profession will have solved problems that its members could scarcely have imagined and would never have undertaken without commitment to the paradigm."

(Thomas Kuhn, 1962, Vol. II, No. 2, p.24)

Thomas S. Kuhn (1962). "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions".



1962 • accurate predictions • anomalies • ascendant revolution • Bernard Barber • conceptual continuity • development-by-accumulation • episodic model • history of science • history of scientific knowledge • logical positivism • logically determinate procedure • normal science • paradigm • paradigm shiftphilosophy of science • philosophy of scientific knowledge • puzzle-solving • realistic humanism • revolutionary science • science • scientific discovery • scientific knowledgescientific progress • scientific revolutions • sociology of scientific knowledge • Thomas Kuhn • useless science


Simon Perkins
29 DECEMBER 2013

Some have always distrusted new things...

"Skepticism is not new to education. Emerging technologies are often viewed with fear and resistance. Just look at some of the history surrounding educational change.

'Students today can't prepare bark to calculate their problems. They depend upon their slates, which are more expensive. What will they do when the slate is dropped and it breaks? They will be unable to write.'–Teachers Conference, 1703

'Students today depend upon paper too much. They don't know how to write on a slate without getting chalk dust all over themselves. They can't clean a slate properly. What will they do when they run out of paper?'–Teachers Association, 1815

'Students today depend upon store–bought ink. They don't know how to make their own. When they run out of ink, they will be unable to write words or cipher until the next trip to the settlement. This is a sad commentary on modern times.'–Rural American Teacher, 1929

'Ballpoint pens will be the ruin of education in our country. Students use these devices and then throw them away! The American virtues of thrift and frugality are being discarded. Business and banks will never allow such expensive luxuries.'–Federated Teacher, 1959"

(Michael Bloom, Professional Associates for Consultation and Training)



1703 • 1815 • 19291959 • authentic practices • authenticity of thingsballpoint pen • bark • chalkconservative attitudesconstantly evolving technological platformcultural understanding of technologydistruste-learning • educational change • emerging technologiesfear of technologyinstrumental conception of technologylearning and teachinglooking backwards to the futureluddite • meaningful learning experiences • mistrust • naive perspectives • no batteries requiredorthodoxypaperparadigm shiftpen and inkpen and paper • resistance to change • resistant behaviourritualskeptical perspectiveskepticismslatestudent learning • teacher professionalism • teachingtechnical skilltechnological advancementstechnology and its impacttechnology as neutraltraditional processtraditional techniques • try out new ideas • unhealthy suspicion • use of technology


Simon Perkins
06 NOVEMBER 2012

Open Courses are upending the higher education paradigm

"Open Courses will definitively shift the power from content to community in Higher Learning. The second coming of knowledge is firmly associated with free connections, inquiry and conversations, something that textbooks implicitly discourage. Textbooks, for all they stand for, are the industrial age contraptions that dominated learning for most of last fifty years; Open courses bring a much needed, paradigm shifting update.

In summary, then, Open Courses are eating the publishers' lunch, and that's where the resentment comes from. These masters of the learning universe already had enough trouble with the culture of Internet, and Open Courses represent everything they feared: the communities, the conversations and the knowledge commons. This isn't a battle which is over yet, but we may just be witnessing a passing of an age."

(Supriyo Chaudhuri, 05 November 2012)


2012connectivismcredentialism • credentials or access • diploma mill • free connections • from content to community • game-changer • higher learningindustrial ageindustrial revolutioninternet cultureknowledge commonsknowledge communitiesknowledge conversations • learning conversations • learning networksMOOCsnew business models • open courses • open courseware • open education • paradigm shiftpedagogic recontextualising fieldpolitical legitimacy • power shift • PRF • privileged access • publisher and the profit • publishing revenues • sale of print • Supriyo Chaudhuri • textbook publishers • textbooksuniversities


Simon Perkins
29 MAY 2010

The Creative Industries KTN: the future of digital content

"This document has been created to help people understand the radical transformation digital content will have on the creative industries, and to provide businesses with outline areas of opportunity where innovation is most likely to occur.

In the past decade, digital content has become a part of everyday life for all. Yet the changes that will occur in the next 5–10 years will be profound. They have the power to alter the way we live, work, play, learn and help us to live longer, more fulfilling lives. These changes will substantially alter existing business models and markets.

Many historical innovations such as new recording formats, more powerful consoles and new advertising media were incremental. They changed formats and created new opportunities, but they did not alter the industrial landscape. The changes taking place now are paradigm shifts that challenge the value chain as a whole.

These changes represent huge opportunities, or threats if not understood. For games designers, it may mean the migration from console platforms to cloud based applications and casual gaming communities. For TV programmes it may mean the end of broadcast, where their content must be found and consumed on numerous devices. For publishers it may mean the migration to new consumption platforms that radically alter distribution channels. For industrial designers, it may mean the need to move from object creation to experience creation. For all it means the need to radically shift their thinking.

The following pages outline the key areas highlighted by a project that has engaged with hundreds of key stakeholders across the creative industries and technology industries seeking to map the landscape of the future of digital content."

(Kelechi Amadi, March 2010)



2010 • advertising media • Beacons for Innovation • broadcastingbusiness modelscasual gaming • casual gaming communities • cloud based applications • cloud computingconsoleconsumptionconsumption platformsconvergencecreative economycreative industriesCreative Industries Knowledge Transfer Networkdigital contentdistributioneconomic changeexperience creationformat • games consoles • historical innovations • industrial landscape • innovationKnowledge Transfer Networkknowledge-based economyKTNmarketsnew mediaold mediaparadigm shiftplatformsproduct designrecordingtechnology • technology industries • Technology Strategy Boardthe future of digital contenttransformation • TSB • TVUKvalue chain


Simon Perkins
18 JANUARY 2005

Architecture of Change: Design Adjusts to the Age of Flux

"The Architecture of Change is a paradigm shift that embraces the transience in today's culture and life in an age that worships change. We are the most news–centric generation ever, ruled by flux and mobility. Process is as important as the continually morphing goals. We are beset with styles, trends and other forces of change. A new means to help sustain our adaptability in the built world is rapidly emerging and can be termed The Architecture of Change. It frees us from buildings and environments that are bland boxes made of immutable materials and mute walls. It enables us to design with more emotion, and deliver experiences driven by content and meaning."
(Richard Foy, 15 October 2004, Design Intelligence)


activityadaptabilityarchitecture • architecture of change • bland boxes • buildings and environmentsbuilt environment • built world • change • changing styles • choreographing social experience • communication as message • communication mediumconstant change • containment • content and meaning • continually morphing goalscultural ideascultural traditionscultural values • design vernacular • digital technologiesdurability • durable materials • dwellingexperienceexperience design • flux and mobility • focus on people • forces of change • human needs • immutable materials • information sharingluminosity • memorialise our enterprises • messagingmutable • mute walls • news • news-centric generation • paradigm shiftpermanence • perpetuate myths • refreshable information • shelter • staging lived experience • transiencetransparency

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