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19 MAY 2014

Defining features of practice-based and practice-led research

"Practice-based Research is an original investigation undertaken in order to gain new knowledge partly by means of practice and the outcomes of that practice. Claims of originality and contribution to knowledge may be demonstrated through creative outcomes which may include artefacts such as images, music, designs, models, digital media or other outcomes such as performances and exhibitions Whilst the significance and context of the claims are described in words, a full understanding can only be obtained with direct reference to those outcomes. A practice-based PhD is distinguishable from a conventional PhD because creative outcomes from the research process may be included in the submission for examination and the claim for an original contribution to the field are held to be demonstrated through the original creative work.

Practice-based doctoral submissions must include a substantial contextualisation of the creative work. This critical appraisal or analysis not only clarifies the basis of the claim for the originality and location of the original work, it also provides the basis for a judgement as to whether general scholarly requirements are met. This could be defined as judgement of the submission as a contribution to knowledge in the field, showing doctoral level powers of analysis and mastery of existing contextual knowledge, in a form that is accessible to and auditable by knowledgeable peers.

Practice-led Research is concerned with the nature of practice and leads to new knowledge that has operational significance for that practice. The main focus of the research is to advance knowledge about practice, or to advance knowledge within practice. In a doctoral thesis, the results of practice-led research may be fully described in text form without the inclusion of a creative outcome. The primary focus of the research is to advance knowledge about practice, or to advance knowledge within practice. Such research includes practice as an integral part of its method and often falls within the general area of action research. The doctoral theses that emerge from this type of practice related research are not the same as those that include artefacts and works as part of the submission."

(Creativity and Cognition Studios, University of Technology Sydney)

TAGS

action research • advance knowledge about practice • advance knowledge within practice • central practice element • contextual knowledge • contribution to knowledge • contribution to knowledge in the field • conventional PhD • creative artefact • creative artefacts • creative outcome • creative outcomes • creative work contextualisation • Creativity and Cognition Studios (CCS)critical analysis • critical appraisal • digital media practice • doctoral level analysis • doctoral submission • doctoral theses • doctoral thesis • exegesis • knowledge about practice • knowledgeable peers • mastery • nature of practice • new knowledge • new knowledge by means of practice • new understandings about practice • operational significance for that practice • original contribution to the field • original creative work • original investigation • original work • originalitypractice-basedpractice-based PhDspractice-based researchpractice-ledpractice-led researchresearch processresearch scholarship • research types • scholarly requirements • submission for examination • types of research • University of Technology Sydney

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 DECEMBER 2012

How to design your research project

"What are your beliefs about how valid knowledge can be obtained? This will influence your approach to your research. If you are a positivist, for example, (who believes that valid knowledge can be obtained through a scientific approach), you are likely to choose a quantitative research method that begins with a theory and tests that theory. If you favour the social constructivist view that meaning is subjective, gained through interactions with others, you would be more likely to choose qualitative research methods that explores themes. Qualitative research is about generating theory and finding patterns of meaning."

(Centre for Academic Development and Quality, Nottingham Trent University)

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TAGS

Abbas Tashakkori • Anthony Onwuegbuzie • audiencebeliefs • Centre for Academic Development and Quality • data collection • epistemological approach • epistemological beliefs • epistemologyethical considerationsethical issues • existing theory • experimental designs • generating theory • interactions with others • John Creswell • Journal of Mixed Methods Research • Judith Bell • Mark Weinstein • Martyn Denscombe • Matt Henn • meaning is subjective • mixed methods • mixed methods research • new knowledge • new research methods • new theory • Nick Foard • non-experimental design • patterns of meaningpositivistqualitative research • quantitative research methods • research • research aims • research approachresearch contributionresearch designresearch disseminationresearch methodologyresearch projectresearch questions • research theory • scientific approach • social constructivistsocial sciencetriangulationvalid knowledge

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 JUNE 2011

PhD artistic practice as a theoretical thesis or artwork and exegesis

"The main purpose of research graduate study is to encourage independence and originality of thought in the quest for knowledge. The Doctor of Philosophy degree is awarded in recognition of a student's erudition in a broad field of learning and for notable accomplishment in that field through an original and substantial contribution to knowledge. The candidate's research must reveal high critical ability and powers of imagination and synthesis, and may be in the form of new knowledge, or of significant and original adaptation, application and interpretation of existing knowledge. ...

15. Presentation of PhD Theses by Creative Works

15.1.1 In the case of a thesis submitted in the area of artistic practice, presentation may be in one of two forms: a theoretical thesis or artwork and exegesis. The artwork may be in the form of exhibition, performance, literary work, film, CD Rom or other approved format. The artwork and exegesis will be examined as an integrated whole. The artwork should provide a coherent demonstration that the candidate has reached an appropriate standard in the research and has made a significant and original contribution to knowledge in the area. The exegesis should describe the research process and elaborate, elucidate and place in context the artistic practice undertaken. In the case of visual or performing arts, the examiners will attend the exhibition/performance, at which time they will be given a copy of the exegesis in temporary binding. A final copy of the exegesis will be provided to the examiners within three months of their viewing the artwork.

15.2 Examination of a Creative Work Other Than a Printed Thesis

15.2.1 Where other materials are to be examined, such as in the areas of visual, performing, literary or media arts, the candidate must seek approval from Research Degrees Committee for the form and presentation of the thesis at the time of the Stage 2 application for entry to the PhD program.

15.2.2 Artistic practice may be examined by a theoretical thesis or by artwork and exegesis. The artwork and the exegesis will not be examined separately but as an integrated whole constituting the original and substantial contribution to knowledge required from doctoral candidates.

15.2.3 A theoretical thesis is a written document which would conform in all respects to the remainder of this policy.

15.2.4 Studio–based inquiry may result in a thesis presented by artwork and exegesis. The artwork should be the research outcome, while the exegesis should describe the research process and elaborate, elucidate and place in context the artistic practice undertaken.

15.2.5 The exegesis would normally not exceed 50,000 words and would conform in all respects to the remainder of this policy. It should also contain a description of the form and presentation of the artistic practice which constitutes the remainder of the thesis."

(Queensland University of Technology, Manual of Policies and Procedures, 12.10.2007)

TAGS

academic regulations • application and interpretation • artwork and exegesis • coherent demonstration • creative work • critical ability • Doctor of Philosophy • exegesis • existing knowledge • IF49 • Manual of Policies and Procedures • MOPP • new knowledge • original and substantial contribution to knowledge • original contribution to knowledge • originality of thought • PhD • powers of imagination • Queensland University of Technology • quest for knowledge • QUT • research degrees committee • research graduate study • research outcomeresearch process • significant and original adaptation • studio-based enquirysynthesis • theoretical thesis • thesis • thesis presentation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 MAY 2011

Design Research: Building a Culture from Scratch

"Conference description of the topic: A 2005 education survey by Metropolis Magazine showed no consensus among practitioners or educators about what constitutes design research; limited access to research findings from professional practice; nascent use of students as interns in the research process; and great confusion about what design issues deserve the greatest attention by researchers. Organizers of the 2007 conference of the International Association of Societies of Design Research reported that only 10% of the paper submissions came from Americans, demonstrating that the US is behind other countries in the generation of new knowledge.

Despite this confusion, there is ample evidence that research will play an increasing role in the future of professional practice and that the typical usability testing in labs and focus groups will be insufficient in informing large–scale communication strategies and technological development. Further, it is apparent that design practitioners consider research to be proprietary and that any large–scale dissemination of new knowledge must come from academic institutions.

It is clear, therefore, that much work is yet to be done in building a research culture. Traditionally, undergraduate 'research' activities have been defined in terms of existing information retrieval on the subject matter of the communication, the wants and needs of the client, and the technical demands of message production and distribution, little of which is transferrable to other projects. Further, in many programs there is limited curricular distinction between the research behaviors expected of undergraduate and graduate students, leaving the majority of master's graduates unprepared for the scholarship and knowledge generation demands of current faculty positions in research–driven institutions."

(Judith Gregory, Deborah Littlejohn et al., 10 October 2010)

Moderator Judith Gregory and writer Deborah Littlejohn have a report on Design research: Building a culture from scratch

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TAGS

2007 • academic institutions • academic programmesart and design conference • building a research culture • communication strategiesconceptualisationconferencecurriculumdesign educatorsdesign practitionersdesign researchenquiryfocus groups • from scratch • graduate studentsInternational Association of Societies of Design Research • Judith Gregory • knowledge generation • masters degree • Metropolis Magazine • new knowledgeprofessional practicerequirements gatheringresearch • research findings from professional practice • research process • research-driven institutions • researchersscholarship • technical demands of message production and distribution • technological development • the wants and needs of the client • theory building • transferrable • undergraduate researchundergraduate studentsusability testing

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 JANUARY 2011

Practice vs praxis: modelling practitioner-based research

"Praxis, for me, involves the critical and inextricable meld of theory and practice. Thus practitioner–based research is concerned with processes for theorising practice ... In moving creatively into our practice we are fundamentally concerned to develop new knowledge, to challenge old beliefs and to speculate on the 'what ifs' of our concepts and processes. For the arts practitioner, this new knowledge is made in the context of and challenge to the history, theory and practices of the relevant field. The research function for developing and extending knowledge is judged on the outcome of the research, which synthesises, extends or analyses the problematics of the discipline. It is important to realise that this creative work resembles pure and applied research in any field. As Richard Dunn says; 'a work of art or design is embedded in or deforms the theory and practice of the discipline' (1994:8)."

(Robyn Anne Stewart, 2003, USQ ePrints)

1). Stewart, Robyn Anne (2003) Practice vs praxis: modelling practitioner–based research. In: 2002 International Society for Education through Art (InSEA) World Congress, 19–24 Aug 2002, New York, USA.

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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