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Which clippings match 'Vector Graphic' keyword pg.1 of 2
03 JANUARY 2014

Interface functions: conceptually similar operationally different

"I am going to argue that 'media independence' does not just happen by itself. For a technique to work with various data types, programmers have to implement a different method for each data type. Thus, media–independent techniques are general concepts translated into algorithms, which can operate on particular data types. Let us look at some examples.

Consider the omnipresent cut and paste. The algorithm to select a word in a text document is different from the algorithm to select a curve in a vector drawing, or the algorithm to select a part of a continuous tone (i.e. raster) image. In other words, 'cut and paste' is a general concept that is implemented differently in different media software depending on which data type this software is designed to handle. (In Larry Tesler's original implementation of the universal commands concept done at PARC in 1974–5, it only worked for text editing.) Although cut, copy, paste, and a number of similar 'universal commands' are available in all contemporary GUI applications for desktop computers (but not necessarily in mobile phone apps), what they actually do and how they do it is different from application to application.

Search operates in the same way. The algorithm to search for a particular phrase in a text document is different than the algorithm that searches for a particular face in a photo or a video clip. (I am talking here about 'content–based search,' i.e. the type of search which looks for information inside actual images, as opposed to only searching image titles and other metadata the way image search engines such as Google Image Search were doing it in the 2000s.) However, despite these differences the general concept of search is the same: locating any elements of a single media object–or any media objects in a larger set–to match particular user–defined criteria. Thus we can ask the web browser to locate all instances of a particular word in a current web page; we can ask a web search engine to locate all web pages which contain a set of keywords; and we can ask a content–based image search engine to find all images that are similar in composition to an image we provided. ...

Against these historical developments, the innovation of media software clearly stands. They bring a new set of techniques which are implemented to work across all media. Searchability, findability, linkability, multimedia messaging and sharing, editing, view control, zoom and other 'mediaindependent' techniques are viruses that infect everything software touches–and therefore in their importance they can be compared to the basic organizing principles for media and artifacts which were used for thousands of years."

(Lev Manovich, 2013, pp.113–124)

Manovich, L. (2013). "Software Takes Command", Continuum.

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TAGS

1974algorithm • black box model • black box system • black box theory • content-based • content-based search • continuous tone • cut and pastedata typesdesktop computer • findability • general concepts • Google Image Search • GUI applications • high-level designimage identificationimage searchimage search engine • implemented differently • keyword search • Larry Tesler • Lev Manovich • linkability • low-level implementation • media independence • media production • media software • media-independent techniques • media-independent techniques from different implementations • metadata • polymorphism • raster imagesearch algorithmsearch engine • search phrase • search toolsearchabilitytechnology affordances • text document • text editing • text selection • TinEye • universal commands • vector graphicvisual searchweb search engineweb searchingXerox PARC

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 MARCH 2012

Wacom Inkling: a digital drawing pen for artists

"Wacom's Inkling pen has caused quite a buzz in the creative community. A ballpoint pen with a tracker in it that records your strokes to a small box you can carry with you, it's been described as the ideal digital tool for artists who prefer real pens to digital substitutes. ...

One key thing to be said about the Inkling is that it's not a replacement for traditional drawing pens. The captured digital files are not a full–quality representation of a drawing. But then Wacom have stated clearly that the Inkling is for sketching –– even if that has been drowned out a little by the overstretching enthusiasm from some online commentators.

'The line was certainly not as crisp as it was hand–drawn,' [illustrator Lizzie Mary Cullen] notes. 'The layer function is amazing but when uploaded some of the layers appeared to have moved ever so slightly. The line simply isn't as true as a scan, and that is exactly why it's for brainstorming, sketching and rough drawings as opposed to polished artworks."

(Neil Bennett, 08 September 2011, Digital Arts)

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TAGS

Adobe IllustratorAdobe Photoshopartwork • Autodesk Sketchbook Pro • ballpoint • ballpoint penbirodevicedigital artworkdigital drawingdoodledrawing • drawing onto the screen • hand-drawnillustration • Inkling • Inkling pen • input device • Intuos tablet • learning materialspaper • pen • pen and paper • pressure sensitive • pressure sensitivity • Rotring Rapidograph • sketch • SketchBook Designer • SketchManager • stationary • stylus • tabletvector graphicWacom • Wacom Guido Moller • Wacom Inkling

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 MAY 2010

Logorama

"H5 est l'auteur de nombreux clips (Alex Gopher, Massive Attack, Röyksopp...), et a été régulièrement exposé (Nuit Blanche 2007, Beaubourg, MoMA...).
Avec Logorama, H5 (François Alaux, Hervé de Crécy et Ludovic Houplain) signe son 1er court métrage (17 mn)."
(H5)

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TAGS

2009advertising billboardsanimationbrandcar chasechase scenecorporate identitydesign formalismFrance • Francois Alaux • H5 • Herve de Crecy • Logorama • Los Angeles • Ludovic Houplain • motion designnarrativepervasive advertisingpopular cultureRoyksoppshort filmvector graphicvisual communicationvisual designvisual languagevisual literacy

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
27 NOVEMBER 2009

1931: the dangers of electrocution

"diagrams illustrating the dangers of electrocution in typically glorious Weimar fashion. From the book Elektroschutz in 132 Bildern By Stefan Jellinek. I like to think of these as filling a need to acculturate people to the dangers of electricity, and based on these images, I would guess electricity was pretty dangerous technology at the time."

(Frank Sayre, toomanyinterests)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 JULY 2009

Communicating the Modern Body: Fritz Kahn's Popular Images of Human Physiology as an Industrialized World

"The visualization of the human body has always been a highly popular affair, and popular science writing has been particularly perceptive as to how new media has revolutionized science. This article analyzes the intertwining of science, culture, and technology by investigating the lavishly illustrated publications of Fritz Kahn, arguably one of the most successful popular science writers internationally between 1920 and 1960. His illustrations developed a specific style of visualization that positioned the human body firmly in an industrial modernity of machine analogues, which he eventually copyrighted as a product line. This visual crossover between industrialization and science demonstrates surprisingly accurately how human nature becomes historically contingent and culturally encoded."
(Cornelius Borck, Canadian Journal of Communication. Vol 32, No 3. 2007)

2). Cornelius Borck (2007). "Communicating the Modern Body: Fritz Kahn's Popular Images of Human Physiology as an Industrialized World", Vol 32, No. 3, Canadian Journal of Communication.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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