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Which clippings match 'Image Identification' keyword pg.1 of 1
03 JANUARY 2014

Interface functions: conceptually similar operationally different

"I am going to argue that 'media independence' does not just happen by itself. For a technique to work with various data types, programmers have to implement a different method for each data type. Thus, media–independent techniques are general concepts translated into algorithms, which can operate on particular data types. Let us look at some examples.

Consider the omnipresent cut and paste. The algorithm to select a word in a text document is different from the algorithm to select a curve in a vector drawing, or the algorithm to select a part of a continuous tone (i.e. raster) image. In other words, 'cut and paste' is a general concept that is implemented differently in different media software depending on which data type this software is designed to handle. (In Larry Tesler's original implementation of the universal commands concept done at PARC in 1974–5, it only worked for text editing.) Although cut, copy, paste, and a number of similar 'universal commands' are available in all contemporary GUI applications for desktop computers (but not necessarily in mobile phone apps), what they actually do and how they do it is different from application to application.

Search operates in the same way. The algorithm to search for a particular phrase in a text document is different than the algorithm that searches for a particular face in a photo or a video clip. (I am talking here about 'content–based search,' i.e. the type of search which looks for information inside actual images, as opposed to only searching image titles and other metadata the way image search engines such as Google Image Search were doing it in the 2000s.) However, despite these differences the general concept of search is the same: locating any elements of a single media object–or any media objects in a larger set–to match particular user–defined criteria. Thus we can ask the web browser to locate all instances of a particular word in a current web page; we can ask a web search engine to locate all web pages which contain a set of keywords; and we can ask a content–based image search engine to find all images that are similar in composition to an image we provided. ...

Against these historical developments, the innovation of media software clearly stands. They bring a new set of techniques which are implemented to work across all media. Searchability, findability, linkability, multimedia messaging and sharing, editing, view control, zoom and other 'mediaindependent' techniques are viruses that infect everything software touches–and therefore in their importance they can be compared to the basic organizing principles for media and artifacts which were used for thousands of years."

(Lev Manovich, 2013, pp.113–124)

Manovich, L. (2013). "Software Takes Command", Continuum.

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TAGS

1974algorithm • black box model • black box system • black box theory • content-based • content-based search • continuous tone • cut and pastedata typesdesktop computer • findability • general concepts • Google Image Search • GUI applications • high-level designimage identificationimage searchimage search engine • implemented differently • keyword search • Larry Tesler • Lev Manovich • linkability • low-level implementation • media independence • media production • media software • media-independent techniques • media-independent techniques from different implementations • metadata • polymorphism • raster imagesearch algorithmsearch engine • search phrase • search toolsearchabilitytechnology affordances • text document • text editing • text selection • TinEye • universal commands • vector graphicvisual searchweb search engineweb searchingXerox PARC

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
26 JULY 2012

Spot the Difference project on visual plagiarism

"Whilst there has been extensive research and guidance on the nature and issues surrounding text–based plagiarism in Further and Higher Education, there has been relatively little research undertaken on the topic of plagiarism in non–text based media. The Spot the Difference project seeks to address this gap and to undertake research on the meaning, nature, and issues surrounding the complex and nebulous concept of 'visual plagiarism', as well as to investigate the potential uses and relevance that visual search technology may have to offer in this area."

(Leigh Garrett, VADS, University for the Creative Arts)

The project is a collaboration between the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS) at the University for the Creative Arts and the Centre for Vision, Speech, and Signal Processing (CVSSP) at the University of Surrey. The project is funded through a JISC Learning & Teaching Innovation grant from June 2011 to May 2012.

Fig.1 'Giving credit' poster by Pia Jane Bijkerk [http://www.piajanebijkerk.com/], Erin Loechner, and Yvette van Boven.

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TAGS

Amy Robinson • appropriationauthorship • Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing • citation as a form of persuasioncreditingcultural production • CVSSP • Erin Loechner • further education • giving credit • Harvard Referencing SystemHEhigher educationimage identificationJISC • John Collomosse • Leigh Garrett • nothing is originaloriginalityownership • Pia Jane Bijkerk • plagiarism • plagiarism in non-text based media • poster • Spot the Difference (project) • text-based plagiarism • theftthieverytransformative worksUniversity for the Creative Arts • University of Surrey • VADS • Visual Arts Data Service • visual plagiarism • visual search technology • your work • Yvette van Boven

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
25 APRIL 2011

The adult business fuels a lot of mainstream technology growth

Jason Tucker: "the mainstream has learned a lot from the adult business. The adult business fuels a lot of the growth of technology that exists on the internet. From streaming video, from content delivery vehicles, from content delivering networks, dealing with bottlenecks on the internet because there are so many people going to a specific ite, distributing that around. From that it's now...and then also the basic business models, the how to transact, the per click, the per impression, the upsell concept. That all came from the adult business."

(Robin Benger, 2009)

Extract transcript from extended interview with Jason Tucker (CEO Falcon Enterprises) and video interview from: Robin Benger (2009). "Porndemic", Cogent/Benger Productions.

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TAGS

2009 • adult business • adult company • Adult FriendFinder • BitTorrentbusiness modelcontent deliveryDigital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) • digital sexual experience • disruptive innovation • electronic pornography • erotic library • Falcon Enterprises • image identificationimage library • internet generation • Internet porn • Jason Tucker • killing time content • Larry Flynt • mainstream • marketplacemovie businessownership • pay site • pay-per-click • pay-per-impression • pay-per-view • Penthouse (magazine) • picture gallery • Playboy (magazine) • porn industry • porn library • Porndemic (2009) • pornographyre-publish • Robin Benger • sex industry • stealing content • Steve Hirsch • streaming videotelevision documentary • tube sites • upselling • vertical market • video gallery • video on demand • Vivid Entertainment Group • Wicked Pictures

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 APRIL 2010

TinEye: reverse image search engine

"TinEye is a reverse image search engine. You can submit an image to TinEye to find out where it came from, how it is being used, if modified versions of the image exist, or to find higher resolution versions.

TinEye is the first image search engine on the web to use image identification technology rather than keywords, metadata or watermarks."

(Idée Inc., Canada)

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TAGS

appropriationauthorshipCanadacopyrightdigital cultureduplicateICT • Idée Inc. • imageimage identificationimage searchimage search engineinformation in contextknowledge managementonlineownershippiracy • PixID • Piximilar • PixMatch • plagiarismre-publishremix • reverse image search engine • searchsearch engineshared indextechnologyTinEye • TinEye API • versionvisual search

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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