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23 FEBRUARY 2014

Jamie O'Neil: Skipping Slides (building cognitive maps)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 FEBRUARY 2014

Bright Minds and Dark Attitudes: Lower Cognitive Ability Predicts Greater Prejudice Through Right-Wing Ideology and Low Intergroup Contact

"Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right–wing ideologies (social conservatism, right–wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out–groups. In an analysis of two large–scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract–reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models."

(Gordon Hodson and Michael A. Busseri, 2012)

Hodson, G. and M. Busseri (2012). "Bright Minds and Dark Attitudes: Lower Cognitive Ability Predicts Greater Prejudice Through Right–Wing Ideology and Low Intergroup Contact." Psychological Science 23(2): 187–195.

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TAGS

2012 • abstract reasoning • abstract reasoning skills • abstract thinkingabstract thought • antihomosexual prejudice • authoritarianismbelief systems • bright minds • childhood intelligence • cognitive abilities • cognitive ability • cognitive profilingcognitive psychologyconception of abilityconservative attitudes • conservative ideology • dunce • general intelligence • Gordon Hodson • human behaviourintelligenceintelligence of mind • intergroup contact • interpersonal behaviour • Michael Busseri • orthodox practicesout-groupsoversimplificationpersonal valuespolitical compasspolitical ideology • predictive effect • prejudice • prejudice models • racismright-wingsocial conservatismsocioeconomic statusUKUSA

CONTRIBUTOR

Linda Carroli
18 AUGUST 2013

Thinking aloud: a method for systematically collecting and analysing data about the design process

"Suppose that you want to understand the design process of architects, the knowledge that they use, the cognitive actions that they take and the strategies they employ. How would you go about this? One obvious possibility is to ask some architects how they design a building. Interestingly enough, they will not find this an easy question to answer. They are used to do their job, not to explain it. If they do try to tell you how they go about their design work, it is quite possible that their account of it will be incomplete or even incorrect, because they construct this account from memory. They may be inclined to describe the design process neatly in terms of the formal design methods that they acquired during their professional training, whereas the real design process deviates from these methods. Psychologists have demonstrated that such accounts are not very reliable. Another possibility is to look at the architects' designs and at their intermediate sketches. However, now you are looking at the products of the thought processes of these architects, and not at the thought processes themselves. What is needed are more direct data on the ongoing thinking processes during working on a design. If you want to know how they arrive at their designs, what they think, what is difficult for them and what is easy, how they reconcile conflicting demands, a different research method is needed.

A good method in this situation is to ask architects to work on a design and to instruct them to think aloud. What they say is recorded and used as data for analysis of the design process. This is a very direct method to gain insight in the knowledge and methods of human problem–solving. The speech and writings are called spoken and written protocols. In this book we will describe a method for systematically collecting and analysing such think aloud protocols. This method can be used by psychologists and other social scientists who want to know more about cognitive processes. It is also an important method for knowledge engineers whose goal is to build a knowledgebased computer system on the basis of human expertise."

(Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard, et al., 1994, pp.1–2)

Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard and Jacobijn A.C. Sandberg. (1994). "The Think Aloud Method: A Practical Guide to Modelling Cognitive Processes".

TAGS

academic researchanalysing dataarchitectural thoughtcognitive actionscognitive processescognitive psychologycognitive sciencecognitive theoriesconceptual modeldata collection and analysisdata collection techniquesdesign knowledgedesign process • design strategies • design workdirect observationexperimental knowledgeformal design methods • human expertise • knowledge engineer • knowledge-based systems • problem-solvingpsychological analysispsychological modelsresearch methodsketching ideas • social scientists • spoken protocols • task analysis • testing theories • theoretical model • think aloud (research method) • think aloud protocols • thinking processthought process • unreliable evidence • user testinguser-based evaluation • written protocols

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
28 MAY 2013

Discourse analysis: a transdisciplinary field for studying text and talk

"Discourse analysis emerged as a new transdisciplinary field of study between the mid–1960s and mid–1970s in such disciplines as anthropology, ethnography, microsociology, cognitive and social psychology, poetics, rhetoric, stylistics, linguistics, semiotics, and other disciplines in the humanities and social sciences interested in the systematic study of the structures, functions, and processing of text and talk"

(Teun Adrianus van Dijk, p.109)

Teun Adrianus van Dijk (2002). Media contents The Interdisciplinary study of news as discourse. "A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research". N. W. Jankowski and K. B. Jensen, Routledge.

TAGS

anthropologycognitive psychologydiscourse analysisethnographyhandbookhumanities • Klaus Bruhn Jensen • linguisticsmass communication • mass communication research • microsociology • Nicholas Jankowski • Poeticsqualitative methodologiesresearchresearch methodsresearch resourcesrhetoricsemioticssocial psychologysocial sciencesstructuresstylistics • systematic study • talk • Teun Adrianus van Dijk • text and talk • textual analysis • transdisciplinary field

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
16 JULY 2011

How and When Prototyping Practices Affect Design Performance

"How does the structure of prototyping practice affect learning, motivation, and performance? In this talk, I will describe research on iteration and comparison, two key principles for discovering contextual design variables and their interrelationships. We found that, even under tight time constraints when the common intuition is to stop iterating and start refining, iterative prototyping helps designers learn. Our results also demonstrate that creating and receiving feedback on multiple prototypes in parallel – as opposed to serially – leads to more divergent concepts, more explicit comparison, less investment in a single concept, and better overall design performance. This talk highlights relevant research in cognitive and social psychology and shares the results of our preliminary design studies."

(Steven Dow, 19 November 2009, Google Tech Talk)

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TAGS

applied researchcognitive psychology • common intuition • conceptualisation • contextual design • creative problem solvingd.school • Dan Schwartz • design performance • design studiesdesign thinkingdesignersdivergent conceptseggenquiryexperimentation • functional fixedness • Georgia Institute of Technology • GoogleTechTalk • HCIhuman-centred computinghuman-computer interactionhypothesisindustrial engineeringintuitioniteration • iteration and feedback • iterative designiterative prototyping • Karl Duncker • learning • parallel prototyping • problem solving researchproblem-solvingprototyping • prototyping practices • psychologyreal-world design • refinement • Scott Klemmerserial prototypingsocial psychologyStanford University • Steven Dow • theory buildingUniversity of Iowa

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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