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Which clippings match 'Natural Born Killers' keyword pg.1 of 1
30 OCTOBER 2015

Ephemeral Media: temporal programmatic recombinatory practice

"Kuleshov's insights gave voice to a temporal recombinatory practice that is older than the film medium, evident for example in nineteenth-century programming of magiclantern exhibitions, where showmen learned to build – and to rework – stories from the slides that they happened to have. But these early practices, particularly as they appeared through film's first decade or so, actually made use of recombinatory logic in a double sense. First, in the hands of film-makers such as Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith, the sequence of shots was manipulated to construct overall textual meaning (just as Kuleshov would later theorise and experimentally demonstrate). Second, the positioning of the films of Porter, Griffiths and others into full programmes (complete with lantern slides, actualités and other narratives) could itself radically transform the meanings of individual films. Here, the programmer (usually the projectionist) could, through simple manipulation of film sequence, comment upon or build different frameworks of coherence for a particular film. This metalevel of recombination was not discussed by Kuleshov and, indeed, largely took residual form in exhibition practice. But it was seized upon by television (and radio), where programmatic recombination would emerge as the economic lifeblood of the industry in the form of the rerun. And it provides one of the keys to television's distinctive deployment of ephemeral programme elements. Television's programming logics turn on a triad of organisational principles when it comes to texts, ephemeral and not: sequence, interpenetration and repetition."

(William Uricchio, 2011)

[2] Derek Kompare (2005) offers an excellent overview of this practice.

William Uricchio, "The Recurrent, the Recombinatory and the Ephemeral," in Paul Grainge, ed., Ephemeral Media: Transitory Screen Culture from Television to YouTube (London: British Film Institute / Palgrave MacMillan, 2011): 23-36 [].



actualites • broadcast era programming • broadcast schedule • careful orchestration of programme units • changing constituency of viewers • commercial television • content recycling • contextualisationcontinuous viewing • David Wark Griffith • displaced micro-programme elements • Edwin Porter • ephemeral media • ephemeral programme elements • exhibition practice • frameworks of coherence • frequency of repetition • iconic footage • interconnect programme elements • interpenetration • interstitials • John Ellis • juxtaposed imagesKuleshov Effect • larger whole • line-up • magic lantern • manipulation of film sequence • mass media • metalevel recombination • metatextNatural Born Killers • news headlines • organisational principles • paratext • Paul Grainge • persuasive logic • programmatic historical framing • programmatic recombination • programme bumpers • programme hooks • programme segments • programme units • projectionist • punctuation of programme sequence • radio • recombinatory logic • recombinatory practice • recycling of footage • recycling programmes • remote controlrepetition • rerun • residual form • rework • rupture engagement • self-programmer • sequence design • sequence of shots • showmen • television and broadcasting • television programmingtelevision studiestemporal contiguity • temporal recombinatory practice • textual meaning • thirty-minute rotation • timed advertisements • transitory screen culture • watching television • William Uricchio • YouTube channel • YouTube segments


Simon Perkins
18 MARCH 2011

The Art of the Title Sequence: a compendium

"A compendium and leading web resource of film and television title design from around the world. We honor the artists who design excellent title sequences. We discuss and display their work with a desire to foster more of it, via stills and video links, interviews, creator notes, and user comments."

(Ian Albinson)

Fig.1 Ian Albinson, David Horridge, M. Keegan Uhl, Bill Simmon (2011). 'A Brief History of Title Design', Music: RJD2 "Ghostwriter"



Alien (film) • Anatomy of a Murder • animation • Barbarella • Brazil (1985) • Bullitt • Buried (film) • Cape Fear • Carnivale (film) • Casino Royale • Catch Me If You Can • cinemaCitizen Kane • compendium • compilationcredit sequence • Dawn of the Dead • Delicatessen (film) • design formalism • Dexter • Do The Right Thing • Donnie BrascoDr Strangelove (1964) • Dr. No • Enter the Void (2009) • Fallen Angel • Fight Club (1999) • film • Forrest Gump • Freaked • Goldfinger • Grand Prix • Gun CrazyHollywood • Intolerance (film) • Iron Man (film) • Juno • King KongLady in the Lake (1947) • Lemony Snickets A Series of Unfortunate Events • Machete • Mad Men • Make Way For Tomorrow • Mean Streets • Mimic (film) • Mission Impossible • Modern Times (1936) • motion designmotion graphicsmotion graphics timeline • My Man Godfrey • Natural Born Killers • North by Northwest • Phantom of the Opera • Psycho • Raging Bull • Reservoir Dogs (1992) • RJD2 • Robin Hood • Saturday Night Fever • Scott Pilgrim vs the World • Se7ensequence design • Sherlock Holmes • Singing in the Rain • Six Feet Under • Soylent Green • Star WarssupermanTexas • The Fall (film) • The Island of Dr. Moreau • The Kingdom • The Maltese Falcon • The Man With the Golden Arm • The Naked Gun • The Pink Panther • The Social Network • The Terminator • The Thing • The Treasure of the Sierra Madre • The Untouchables • title sequenceTo Kill a Mockingbird • Up In The Air • Vertigo (1958)visual communicationvisual designvisual identityvisual spectacle • Wall-E • Zombieland


Simon Perkins
08 DECEMBER 2009

Feature Film: A 'You Tube Narrative Model'?

"Will the You–Tube revolution foster a new narrative model for feature film? Perhaps it's too early to say. But then again, given the rapid proliferation of the online video portal (launched barely a year ago) it's worth thinking about. To date, most discussion on You Tube centres on its relationship with television. However, there are also signs of 'cross–pollination' with the cinema: from the very, very small screen to the big screen.

Scriptwriting author Ken Dancyger says that new 'narrative models' develop against a background of technological innovation, to provide 'narrative experience that re–establishes its connectivity with its audience' (127). Premonitions of a 'You Tube Narrative Model' can be considered in relation to Dancyger's 'MTV Model': the feature film as an assemblage of 'set–pieces' which appropriate both the structure (2–4 minutes) and aesthetic (high production values/rapid montage) of the music video (132). He points to Natural Born Killers (Oliver Stone, 1994) as an example.

But this earlier brand of (80s–90s) postmodern excess has mutated in the new media environment–and new narrative models beckon. "

(Alex Munt, 7 June 2007, FlowTV)



Simon Perkins

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