"An intragame is a game within the game, e.g. the Pachinko machine in Duke Nukem 3D [or a Pac-Man level in Wolfenstein 3D]. Since computer games are based on simulator technology that could mix or include any other game in addition to the main game, the main game will be the only one classified."
(Aarseth, Smedstad and Sunnanå, 2003, p.49)
1). Video capture of secret Pac-Man level within Episode 3 of Wolfenstein 3D.
2). Table of Contents for Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceedings, DiGRA and Utrecht University
3). Espen Aarseth, Solveig Marie Smedstad and Lise Sunnanå (2003). 'A multi-dimensional typology of games', in Copier, Marinka; Raessens, Joost, Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceedings, DiGRA and Utrecht University
"Duke Nukem Forever was announced in 1997, after its predecessor, Duke Nukem 3D, had rocked the PC market with a hero who liked kicking ass, hanging out with strippers, and murdering alien police officers that were, literally, pigs. It was inappropriate, raunchy, and amazing.
It was also one of the games that gave 3D Realms the success that brought its destruction. Duke Nukem Forever began life as a completely self-funded game; its developer wanted nothing less than perfection, and would chase every update in technology in order to deliver it. The game saw monumental delays, suffered the slings and arrows of a gaming world that was first angry and then tolerant of its favorite whipping boy, had its home taken away, and has since risen from the dead.
Is the public still interested in Duke Nukem? Hell yes it is. This is the story of the gaming industry's favorite joke, and how Duke may finally have the last laugh."
(Ben Kuchera, 7 September 2010)
Fig.1 'Duke Nukem Forever | History of a Legend Episode 1', 2011
Fig.2 trailer from Electronic Entertainment Expo, 1998
Fig.3 video capture of 1991 side-scrolling 'Duke Nukum' version
"In translating a digital game to the big screen, these titles rely on the integration of aesthetics and narrative from their game counterparts to further enhance the viewing experience. The utilization of game narrative in the horror adaptation film is partially based on the acceptance of the video game medium as a cyberdrama, which emphasizes 'the enactment of the story in the particular fictional space of the computer.' Many popular titles were not only about motor coordination and skill, but about becoming immersed in good storytelling. Author Janet Murray states, 'A story has greater emphasis on plot; a game has greater emphasis on the actions of the player. But where the player is also the protagonist or the god of the story world, then player action and plot event begin to merge.' Murray describes the player's attachment to the game narrative as dramatic agency, which 'requires that we script the interactor as well as the world, so that we know how to engage the world, and so that we build up the appropriate expectations.' "
(Timothy D. Alley, p.47, 2007)
54. Janet Murray, "From Game-Story to Cyberdrama." First Person. Eds. Noah Wardrip- Fruin and Pat Harrigan (Cambridge, MA: The MIT P, 2004) 4.