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Which clippings match 'Sequential Composition' keyword pg.1 of 1
25 NOVEMBER 2013

The Kuleshov Effect

"Technique which demonstrates the inherent power of montage as a primary tool in the manipulation of the viewer's perception. According to Kuleshov, cinema consists of fragments and it is their combination rather than their content that is essential in evoking and triggering different emotions. His original experiment consists of using the same shot of the character's face, frozen in a neutral emotion while editing it next to different objects he appears to be glancing at: a girl in a coffin, a bowl of soup, and a woman. The audience interpreted the three situations as expressions of sadness, hunger and lust."

(Laura Minca)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
10 JANUARY 2013

Interstitials: messages or declarations addressed to the viewer

"Interstitials can therefore be found within programmes as well as around them. They constitute a class of television output rather than a genre. They consist of messages or declarations addressed to the viewer from outside the diegetic worlds of fiction or the discourses of news, documentary and factuality. They consist of metadata about both the programme of the moment and the future plans of the broadcaster. They bring together the past and future of broadcasting within its present moment. In addition to this metadata function, other forms of interstitial come from agencies beyond the world of broadcasting who are given conditional access to broadcasting: the advertisers, the sponsors and the government in the form of its public service announcements. This is a whole class of television output: heterogeneous, but occupying a distinct position in relation to the other class of television that is programmes of whatever genre. Sometimes interstitials overlap with or invade programmes. Interstitials make up a class that we have to learn to distinguish. One of the problems of arriving in a new television culture is that of learning how the interstitials work – what they are trying to tell you; how they interlace with the programmes; how they shape the spaces that the programmes occupy; and how they build anticipation and delay into the development of those programmes. It can take an appreciable amount of time to become a skilled viewer as a result."

(John Ellis, 2011, p.95)

Published in: Ephemeral Media, Transitory Screen Culture from Television to YouTube Edited by Paul Grainge Palgrave Macmillan, November 2011 ISBN: 978–1–84457–434–6, ISBN10: 1–84457–434–2 http://us.macmillan.com/ephemeralmedia/PaulGrainge

TAGS

addressed to the vieweradvertisersbeyond the world of broadcastingbringing togetherbroadcaster • building anticipation • class of television output • declarations • delay • diegetic spaceexpositionfactualityfictional world • forms of interstitial • from outside • interlace • intermezzointerstitials • invading • messages • new television culture • positioned around • positioned within • public service announcements • sequential composition • shape the spaces • sponsors • television • television output • television programmes

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
29 NOVEMBER 2009

Tension & Release: What are the functions of rhythm in film?

"All of the tools, the choreographic processes, and the editor's sources of intuitive knowledge about editing a film's rhythm are used by editors in service of fulfilling rhythm's purposes in film. The question in this chapter is: What are the functions of rhythm in film? The following discussion suggests that the functions of rhythm are to create cycles of tension and release and to synchronize the spectator's physical, emotional, and cognitive fluctuations with the rhythms of the film."

(Karen Pearlman, 05 March 2008, The Art of the Guillotine)

Karen Pearlman, 2009. 'Cutting Rhythms: Shaping the Film Edit'. Focal Press.

Fig.1 Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho shower scene; Fig.2 CHAPTER 3: Timing, Pacing, and Trajectory Phrasing; Fig.3 CHAPTER 4: Tension, Release, and Synchronization; Fig.4. A podcast of Karen Pearlman.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 AUGUST 2006

Pre-digital binary flickering: Arnulf Rainer by Peter Kubelka

"In the creation of the sound film named after the Viennese artist Arnulf Rainer, Peter Kubelka used four strips of different material: blank film, black film, perforated magnetic tape with recorded white noise,[1] and blank perforated magnetic tape. Thus, the film consists of the four different elements of light, darkness, noise, and silence, and these are audiovisual correspondences, given that white noise, like white light, contains all of the frequency components of the spectrum with a constantly even amplitude. Like the motion picture, the film's sound exists in its two extremes. Presence and absence in stroboscopic alternation substitute for the representational function of the film and transform it into an event. In the process, the illusion of cinematographic motion is made visible: the interpolation of the eye between the flashing frames as a condition for the fusion of the individual images into a continuous movement. This physiological sensory process usually goes unnoticed, but given contrastive alternating stimuli is now experienced in the form of afterimages on the retina.

However, with this irritation, by means of which the visual perceptive apparatus is cast back into its own physiology, Kubelka is not merely formulating a critique of the apparently self-evident conditionlessness of the unhindered gaze,[2] but is at the same time demonstrating his emphatic notion of film as rhythm. Here, film becomes a metric art form, for the projection speed of twenty-four images per second sets the primary pulse and is thus the underlying meter for the interdependence of sound and image. It is above all in the form of varying relations in synchronicity that the principle of metric film becomes evident, as the score for the light and sound events in Arnulf Rainer demonstrates. The image and film frames are complementary, virtually counterpunctually contrasted in microstructural motifs, from which varying macrostructures can be derived. This evidences a conceptual propinquity to the musical principle of developing variation—sound and image are structured audiovisually as two voices. Arnulf Rainer is thus less a transfer of certain formal elements of music into the fine arts in the sense of a formation of structural analogy and more a structural identity of sound and image that in this form can only be demonstrated in the medium of sound film."

(See This Sound)

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TAGS

1960 • 24 fps • Arnulf Rainer (1960) • Austrian filmmakeravant-garde cinemaavant-garde film makerbinary • binary flickering • black and whitedigitalexperimental film • flicker • formal work • now moment • Peter Kubelka • pre-digital • pre-digital works • rhythmrule-based workscoresequential compositionsolid light filmsstrobingtension and releasevisual abstractionvisual pattern
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