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Which clippings match 'Physical Objects' keyword pg.1 of 2

Design for Action: designing the immaterial artefact

"Throughout most of history, design was a process applied to physical objects. Raymond Loewy designed trains. Frank Lloyd Wright designed houses. Charles Eames designed furniture. Coco Chanel designed haute couture. Paul Rand designed logos. David Kelley designed products, including (most famously) the mouse for the Apple computer.

But as it became clear that smart, effective design was behind the success of many commercial goods, companies began employing it in more and more contexts. High-tech firms that hired designers to work on hardware (to, say, come up with the shape and layout of a smartphone) began asking them to create the look and feel of user-interface software. Then designers were asked to help improve user experiences. Soon firms were treating corporate strategy making as an exercise in design. Today design is even applied to helping multiple stakeholders and organizations work better as a system.

This is the classic path of intellectual progress. Each design process is more complicated and sophisticated than the one before it. Each was enabled by learning from the preceding stage. Designers could easily turn their minds to graphical user interfaces for software because they had experience designing the hardware on which the applications would run. Having crafted better experiences for computer users, designers could readily take on nondigital experiences, like patients' hospital visits. And once they learned how to redesign the user experience in a single organization, they were more prepared to tackle the holistic experience in a system of organizations."

(Tim Brown and Roger Martin, 2015, Harvard Business Review)

A version of this article appeared in the September 2015 issue (pp.56–64) of Harvard Business Review.



Bill BuxtonCharles EamesCoco Chanelcomplex systems • David Kelley • design history • design intervention • design processdesign thinking • design-oriented approach • design-oriented thinkingdesigned artefactethnographic design approachFrank Lloyd Wright • genuinely innovative strategies • graphical user interfaceHarvard Business ReviewHerbert Simon • holistic user experience • IDEOimmateriality • intervention design • iPoditerative prototyping • iterative rapid-cycle prototyping • iTunes Store • Jeff Hawkins • look and feellow-fidelity prototype • low-resolution prototype • nondigital experiences • PalmPilot • Paul Randpersonal digital assistantphysical objectsrapid prototyping • Raymond Loewy • redesignRichard Buchananrole of the designerservice designuser experienceuser experience designuser feedbackuser interface designwicked problems


Simon Perkins
12 MARCH 2015

Joep Frens: To Make is to Grasp

"Joep Frens, Designer/Researcher and Assistant Professor in the 'Designing Quality in Interaction' group at Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands. Joep's work explores how to design for (growing) systems and the power of 'making' as a physical way of thinking. He takes a 'hands-on' approach to design based in the research-through-design method and regularly gives workshops on cardboard modeling.

Joep is a designer/researcher from the Netherlands. He holds a master degree in Industrial Design Engineering from Delft University of Technology and a doctoral degree from Eindhoven University of Technology on a thesis called: 'Designing for Rich Interaction: Integrating Form, Interaction, and Function' (2006). Currently he is assistant professor in the 'Designing Quality in Interaction' group at the same university. He teaches several courses at bachelor and master level and supervises several PhD students.

In his teaching and research Joep tries to bring together two of his fascinations: the question of how to design for (growing) systems and the power of making as a physical way of thinking. He takes a hands-on approach and is well versed in the research-through-design method. He regularly gives workshops on cardboard modeling and runs a website around the technique.

Before his doctoral research he spent a year at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETH), and after he has been invited to teach and lecture in the USA (CMU), Germany (HFGSG, FHD), South-Korea (KAIST), China (Tsinghua University, Jiangnan university), Belgium (UA) and at several universities in the Netherlands.

Joep's lecture occurred Wednesday, October 1st at 5:00pm in MMCH A14."




2014 • action based paradigm • aesthetic experience • aesthetic interaction • camera • cardboard modelling • Carnegie Mellon Universitycognitive skillsconcept camera • David Menting • Delft University of Technologydesign conceptDesign the Future Lecture Programme • designing for growing systems • designing for interaction • designing for rich interaction • designing for systems • ecological psychology • Eindhoven University of Technology • embodied interaction • expressivity • expressivity of form • feel thingsform and function • form and use • future interfaces • grasp • handlehaptic interfaceHCIhuman capabilitiesindustrial designinteraction styles • Joep Elderman • Joep Frens • Jordy Rooijakkers • Josje Wijnen • Kacper Holenderski • Ken Giang • Lukas Van Campenhout • making as a physical way of thinking • making processmodular design • multi-specific products • Netherlands • Nierenberg Chair of Design • on-screen menus • our tools talk to usphysical modelsphysical objectspliability • proceduralisation • product design • research-through-design method • rich interaction • standardisation interaction styles • systemic design • tactile richnesstechnology affordances • Tom Frissen


Simon Perkins
06 DECEMBER 2013

Motive Architecture: spaces which engage social interaction

"Architecture traditionally has been considered the spatial backdrop to social interaction. But increasingly architects enabled by computational technologies are creating spaces that can engage actively within these social interactions. My research focuses on the non verbal aspects of human computer interaction, embedding kinetic behaviours into physical objects. ...

While increasing numbers of designers are using robotic systems to build novel performative objects and spaces, there is little discourse in design on what forms of motion are most engaging and why? I am exploring how, and when, we percieve animism and causality in moving objects as I hypothesise that the most salient of motions are those which give a subjective impression that something is alive. My research examines the minimal amount of motion required to elicit immediate and seemingly irresistible interpretations of life gaining inspiration from the perceptual research of Michotte (1946), Heider and Simmel (1944), and Tremoulet and Feldmann (2006). A test rig for suspending and animating simple geometric figures has been developed to test methods of eliciting anima. Computer vision systems have been developed in parallel to observe human levels of engagement and to explore novel forms of exchange between architecture and inhabitant."

(Ruairi Glynn)




Albert Michotte • aliveanima • animate form • animational communicationarchitectureautomation • Bartlett School of Architecture • believable charactersbuilt environmentcausalitycognitive science • computational technologies • design research • Fritz Heider • geometric figureshuman computer interactioninteractive architectureinteractive environments • Jacob Feldman • kinetic automatonkinetic bodily logoskinetic sculpture • Marianne Simmel • motive architecture • moving objects • non-linear sequence • nonverbal behaviour • novel forms of exchange • novel performative objects • Patrice Tremoulet • perceptual research • performative spacesphysical engagementphysical objects • Ranulph Glanville • reactive spacerobotic sculpturerobotic systemsRuairi Glynnsocial interaction • spatial backdrop • Stephen Gage • structural forces • test methods • test rig • time-based architecture • time-based art • triggered by stimuli


Liam Birtles
30 APRIL 2012

Pictures Under Glass: sacrificing tactile richness

"As it happens, designing Future Interfaces For The Future used to be my line of work. I had the opportunity to design with real working prototypes, not green screens and After Effects, so there certainly are some interactions in the video which I'm a little skeptical of, given that I've actually tried them and the animators presumably haven't. But that's not my problem with the video.

My problem is the opposite, really – this vision, from an interaction perspective, is not visionary. It's a timid increment from the status quo, and the status quo, from an interaction perspective, is actually rather terrible. ...

I'm going to talk about that neglected third factor, human capabilities. What people can do. Because if a tool isn't designed to be used by a person, it can't be a very good tool, right? ...

Do you see what everyone is interacting with? The central component of this Interactive Future? It's there in every photo! That's right! – HANDS. And that's great! I think hands are fantastic! Hands do two things. They are two utterly amazing things, and you rely on them every moment of the day, and most Future Interaction Concepts completely ignore both of them. Hands feel things, and hands manipulate things.

Go ahead and pick up a book. Open it up to some page. Notice how you know where you are in the book by the distribution of weight in each hand, and the thickness of the page stacks between your fingers. Turn a page, and notice how you would know if you grabbed two pages together, by how they would slip apart when you rub them against each other.

Go ahead and pick up a glass of water. Take a sip. Notice how you know how much water is left, by how the weight shifts in response to you tipping it.

Almost every object in the world offers this sort of feedback. It's so taken for granted that we're usually not even aware of it. Take a moment to pick up the objects around you. Use them as you normally would, and sense their tactile response – their texture, pliability, temperature; their distribution of weight; their edges, curves, and ridges; how they respond in your hand as you use them.

There's a reason that our fingertips have some of the densest areas of nerve endings on the body. This is how we experience the world close–up. This is how our tools talk to us. The sense of touch is essential to everything that humans have called 'work' for millions of years.

Now, take out your favorite Magical And Revolutionary Technology Device. Use it for a bit. What did you feel? Did it feel glassy? Did it have no connection whatsoever with the task you were performing?

I call this technology Pictures Under Glass. Pictures Under Glass sacrifice all the tactile richness of working with our hands, offering instead a hokey visual facade."

(Bret Victor, 8 November 2011)




Simon Perkins
08 APRIL 2011

Physigrams: Modelling Devices for Natural Interaction

"This paper explores the formal specification of the physical behaviour of devices 'unplugged' from their digital effects. By doing this we seek to better understand the nature of physical interaction and the way this can be exploited to improve the design of hybrid devices with both physical and digital features. We use modified state transition networks of the physical behaviour, which we call physiograms, and link these to parallel diagrams of the digital state. These are used to describe a number of features of physical interaction exposed by previous work and relevant properties expressed using a formal semantics of the diagrams. As well as being an analytic tool, the physigrams have been used in a case study where product designers used and adapted them as part of the design process."

(Alan Dix, Masitah Ghazali, Steve Gill, Joanna Hare and Devina Ramduny-Ellis, 2009)

Alan Dix, Masitah Ghazali, Steve Gill, Joanna Hare and Devina Ramduny-Ellis (2009). "Physigrams: Modelling Devices for Natural Interaction", Formal Aspects of Computing Volume 21, Number 6 / December, 2009.



2009 • affordance • Alan Dix • analytic tool • design of hybrid devices • Devina Ramduny-Ellis • diagrammatic notation • diagrams • digital interaction • digital interactions • formal specification • interaction design • interaction modelling • Joanna Hare • Masitah Ghazali • modelling and prototyping • natural interaction • novel tangible interactions • ordinary objects • physical and digital features • physical behaviour • physical devices • physical interactionphysical objectsphysicalityphysigramsproductproduct design • state transition networks • Steve Gill • tangible interaction • technology affordancesubiquitous computing


Simon Perkins

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