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Which clippings match 'Allegory Of The Cave' keyword pg.1 of 1
04 NOVEMBER 2015

Light projection works by American artist James Turrell

"For over half a century, the American artist James Turrell has worked directly with light and space to create artworks that engage viewers with the limits and wonder of human perception. ...

Turrell often cites the Parable of Plato's Cave to introduce the notion that we are living in a reality of our own creation, subject to our human sensory limitations as well as contextual and cultural norms. This is evident in Turrell's over eighty Skyspaces, chambers with an aperture in the ceiling open to the sky. The simple act of witnessing the sky from within a Turrell Skyspace, notably at dawn and dusk, reveals how we internally create the colors we see and thus, our perceived reality. ...

Turrell's medium is pure light. He says, 'My work has no object, no image and no focus. With no object, no image and no focus, what are you looking at? You are looking at you looking. What is important to me is to create an experience of wordless thought.'"

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aesthetic experienceallegory of the cavechamber • childhood fascination • colour and lightcolour fieldcolour light • colour projection • design formalismflat colourformalist design aestheticsgeometric primitive • high-intensity projector • human sensory limitations • immaterialityimmersive experienceimmersive works • interior and exterior spaces • James Turrelllarge scale worklightlight and spacelight artlight projectionlight works • no focus • no image • no object • non-representationalNorth American artistop art • open sky spaces • perceptual psychology • physical presence of lightpresence • projection pieces • projection works • pure light • sensory form • sky • skyspaces • visual abstraction • wordless thought

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 MARCH 2011

The Conformist: dramatic interplay of light and shadow, gestures and movements and room space and sound

"The Conformist is a difficult film, not because its themes are heavy or its form too radical, but because the statement it proposes is a tad indigestible. Once you get over its slight simplification of ideas and reasons, it is a sweeping masterwork that you are looking at. I probably haven't seen any film that as clearly reveal how we have all confused sexuality with morality, morality with religion, religion with politics and politics with security. The tension is palpable in almost every shot of the film. Consider the central scene of sheer cinematic awesomeness where Quadri and Clerici recollect what actually went wrong. Using staggering interplay of light and shadow, gestures and movements and room space and sound, Bertolucci develops the central motif of the film in pure film language, without ever betraying the diegesis of the film. Bertolucci's script takes up Plato's Allegory of the Cave, which suggests that humans are all prisoners inside a dark cave unable to differentiate between real objects and the shadows that they cast on the walls, and adapts it so as to examine the dark history of the country. It is after this point that every element of the film cries out for attention and the ambivalence of the central character brought to light. Especially remarkable is the final shot of the film where, after Italo is swept away by a Rossellinian crowd, Clerici sits on a low platform near the fire, looking towards a homosexual street dweller through prison–like iron bars, still unsure of his political, sexual and moral footing."

(Just Another Film Buff @ The Seventh Art)

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1970aestheticsallegory of the caveBernardo Bertoluccichiaroscurocinematiccinematographydesign formalismdiegesisfigures in spacefilmfilm languagefootinghomosexuality • Il Conformista • insecurity • Italy • light and shadow • masterworkmise-en-scenemoralitymotifmovementpatternPlatopoliticsprisonerrealityreligion • Roberto Rossellini • sexuality • shadows • shotspace • The Conformist • visual communicationvisual designvisual languagevisual literacyvisual spectacle

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 NOVEMBER 2009

Plato's Allegory of the Cave

"Behold! human beings living in a underground cave, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the cave; here they have been from their childhood, and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets.

And now look again, and see what will naturally follow if the prisoners are released and disabused of their error. At first, when any of them is liberated and compelled suddenly to stand up and turn his neck round and walk and look towards the light, he will suffer sharp pains; the glare will distress him, and he will be unable to see the realities of which in his former state he had seen the shadows; and then conceive some one saying to him, that what he saw before was an illusion, but that now, when he is approaching nearer to being and his eye is turned towards more real existence, he has a clearer vision, –what will be his reply? And you may further imagine that his instructor is pointing to the objects as they pass and requiring him to name them, –will he not be perplexed? Will he not fancy that the shadows which he formerly saw are truer than the objects which are now shown to him?"

(Plato)

Plato's Republic, book vii, 514a–c to 521a–e

[Plato's allegory about consciousness underpins Western philosophy. It also introduces a fundamental concept used by Christian theology to describe spiritual enlightenment.]

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allegoryallegory of the caveauthenticitycavechainClassicalcognitive immersionconsciousnesscopy • divine enlightenment • enlightenment • hierarchyimmersionmarionettemetaphysicsmimesisPlatoprisonerpuppetrealismrepresentationshadow • spiritual perception • Theory of Forms • transcendencetruth

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 DECEMBER 2003

Virtual Reality: Pre-digital Immersion Experiments

Oliver Grau (2003 Virtual Art)
Millstones – an incomplete history:

  • cir. 365BC Allegory of Plato's Cave: image projections of people, projected on a cave wall 'fools' spectators into believing that the images are actual people (http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/320/cave.htm).
  • 1894 – stereopticon: 16 slide projectors working in rapid succession, projecting circular pictures.
  • 1895 – Lumiere brothers – Arrivée d'un train en gare le Ciotat: the film causes viewers to rush for the door, believing that they were about to be run–down by the travelling train.
  • 1900 – Cinéorama (World Exhibition, Paris): 10 70mm film projects simultaneously, forming a connected 360 degree image.
  • 1900 – Cinéorama/mareorama (Le Tour du Monde, dioramas of colonies, panaramas of Madagascar and the Congo).
  • 1921 – Teleview: first 3–D film. The technique used red and green coloured projections that were separated–out by two–colour glasses worn by patrons.
  • 1939 – New York World Exhibition: Building the world of tomorrow (plans for new urban development). Futurama: Norman Bel Geddes – a scale–model of an American city in the 1960's.
  • Late 1930's – early 1960's – US. Vitarama/Cinerama: Fred Waller – used by the US air force to improve flight simulators but also screened commercially. The films were shot using three cameras and presented with stereoscopic sound.
  • 1947 – O Stereokino: Sergei M. Eisenstein – an essay stressing the synthesis of all art genres. Despite failing to offer any suggestions as to how to produce such an instrument, he believed that such a device would allow images to 'pour' from the screen into the film auditorium – stereo sound would be essential. The experience would immerse, capture, involve, and engulf the viewer.
  • 1960 – Stereoscopic television apparatus for individual use: Morton L. Heilig – patented 3–D TV using miniature TV screens a users glasses. Commercial application built
  • 1962 – called: Sensorama Simulator.
  • 1964 – Marshall McLuhan: appropriated the term symbiosis to describe the relations between humans and machines.
  • 1970 – Osaka World Exhibition: Pepsi–Cola pavilion presented a near synaesthetic experience using dry ice, interactive laser effects, stroboscopes, and music.
  • 1970's – 1980's – Omnimax: small immersive circular cinemas with spherical projection, extending the viewer's ambient viewing array to 160 degrees.
  • 1974 – film: Earthquake: Robson – included haptic sensations that shock cinema seats.
  • 1981 – Polyester: John Waters – including smells. The entrance ticket came with a card which cinemagoers rubbed during appropriate film sequences, releasing corresponding smells.
  • 1990's – 3–D IMAX (modern–day panorama): The movies take spectators to inaccessible, far–off foreign places.
  • 2000 – Hanover World Exhibition EXPO Planet m: Bertelsmann.

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3-D TV • allegory of the caveambient • Auguste Lumiere • cave • cineorama • Eisenstein • futurama • Heilig • historyIMAXimmersionimmersive experiencelaser • Louis Lumiere • Lumiere Brothers • mareorama • new media art timeline • O stereokino • omnimax • pavilionPlato • Polyester • projection • stereopticon • stereoscopic • stroboscope • synaesthesia • teleview • timelinevirtual reality • vitarama • Waller • Waters • World Exhibition
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