"This article studies an interesting Internet phenomenon known as Human Flesh Search which illustrates the far-reaching impacts of the Internet that is less documented. Due to its huge threat on individual privacy, human flesh search has introduced huge controversy and invited heated debate in China. This paper reviews its growth, explores the impetuses, identifies the distinctions from the alternative search engines, and summarizes the benefits and drawbacks. Furthermore, the paper develops a systematic review of the prior literature in human flesh search by surveying major sources such as academic journals, national and international conferences, and public and private databases. Finally, the paper identifies five research gaps in the literature and offers an initial interpretation and analysis of these remaining research issues. Human flesh search is still growing and the current study helps the computing field learn the past and present of this emerging phenomenon and properly manage its future development."
(Rui Chen and Sushil Sharma, 2011)
Rui Chen and Sushil Sharma (2011). Journal of Information Privacy and Security, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2011, pages 50-71.
"Research involves drawing upon elements and relations from three basic domains: (a) a conceptual domain, which includes concepts and relations considered in abstract form, (b) a methodological domain, which includes instruments and techniques for obtaining observations and for relating sets of observations; and (c) a substantive domain, which includes events, processes, and phenomenon in the 'real' world.
Any research project must contain elements and relations from each of these domains. Thus, it is not possible to conduct research, without some method, some concept (or set of concepts), and some event or process. Elements and relations from each of these domains are not all combined simultaneously. Research generally proceeds by combining two of the domains, to form some structure, and subsequently incorporating (i.e., integrating) the third domain with the developed structure. With three domains, there are at least three patterns for combining the domains. Those three ways represent three distinct research paths; and they pose different advantages and limitations for the investigator."
(David Brinberg, 1982)
David Brinberg (1982) ,"Validity Concepts in Research: an Integrative Approach", in NA – Advances in Consumer Research Volume 09, eds. Andrew Mitchell, Ann Abor, MI : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 40–44.
"In the last few years we've seen government open data initiatives grow from a handful to hundreds, and we've seen open data become important in areas such as research, culture and international development. This event will explore how open data is not only expanding geographically but also touching new sectors and new areas. How should governments and international institutions such as the UN react to these changes? How should business take advantage of new opportunities and contribute to the open data economy? How do citizens and civil society organizations turn data into accountability and into change?"
"A great deal of art or design or technology activity entails some research, or orthodox or unorthodox kinds, in support of the main activity. It is not quite so certain that the activity itself is the same as research activity per se. One has to ask, was the art or design or technological activity an enquiry whose goal was knowledge? Was it systematically conducted? Were the data explicit? Was the record of the conduct of the activity 'transparent', in the sense that a later investigator could uncover the same information, replicate the procedures adopted, rehearse the argument conducted, and produce the same result? Were the data employed, and the outcome arrived at, validated in appropriate ways? Most academic institutions with higher level art, design or technology departments can point to at least a few cases of practical activity where an effort has been made, successfully, to meet these criteria. So can a few research institutes and professional design offices. In these cases the activity can properly be equated with research, and should be recognised and rewarded accordingly. Where any activity, whether it claims to be 'research' or not, fails to meet the criteria which define research activity as 'a systematic enquiry whose goal is communicable knowledge', it cannot properly be classed as research or equivalent to research. Where an activity does meet the criteria, it can be classed as research."
(Bruce Archer, 2004, p.28, The Design and Technology Association)
Archer, B. (2004). "Designerly Activity and Higher Degrees", The Design and Technology Association.