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18 APRIL 2014

Positive and negative spaces form a skyline photo-alphabet

"Berlin-based photographer and illustrator Lisa Rienermann created this unique font out of buildings and blue skies while studying at the University of Duisburg-Essen; it was awarded a certificate of typographic excellence by the Type Directors Club New York back in 2007. 'It began with the 'Q,'' she has explained. 'I was in a kind of courtyard in Barcelona. I looked upward and saw houses, the blue sky and clouds. The more I looked, I saw that the houses formed a letter Q.' Click through for a better look at some of the letters."

(Caroline Stanley, 23 February 2011)

Fig.1 Lisa Rienermann (2007). "Type The Sky".

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2007alphabetBarcelonablue sky • building silhouettes • buildings and environmentscityscapecloud • compositional framing • compositional strategies • courtyard • editing through selectionexperimental type design • framing space • groupingletterform • Lisa Rienermann • negative spaceoutlineperceptual organisation • photoalphabet • photographic alphabet • photographic selection • positive space • selective framing • shapessilhouetteskyskylinetype • Type Directors Club • Type The Sky (2007) • typefacetypography • University of Duisburg-Essen • visual abstractionvisual approach • visual framing • visual similarity

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 APRIL 2014

Design conceptualisation through reverse engineering abstraction

"2.1 Abstraction Levels: An abstraction for a software artifact is a succinct description that suppresses the details that are unimportant to software developer and emphasizes the information that is important. For example, the abstraction provided by high level programming language allows a programmer to construct the algorithms without having to worry about the details of hardware register allocation. Software typically consists of several layers of abstraction built on top of raw hardware; the lowest-level software abstraction is object code, or machine code. Implementation is a common terminology for the lowest level of detail in an abstraction. When abstraction is applied to computer programming, program behavior is emphasized and implementation details are suppressed. The knowledge of a software product at various levels of abstraction undoubtedly underlies operations regarding the maintenance and reuses the existing software components. It is, therefore natural that there is a steadying growing interest in reverse engineering, as a capable of extracting information and documents from a software product to present in higher levels of abstraction than that of code. The abstraction as the process of ignoring certain details in order to simplify the problem and so facilitates the specification, design and implementation of a system to proceed in step-wise fashion. In the context of software maintenance [3], four levels of reverse engineering abstraction are defined: implementation abstraction, structural abstraction, functional abstraction and domain abstraction.

Implementation abstraction is a lowest level of abstraction and at this level the abstraction of the knowledge of the language in which the system is written, the syntax and semantics of language and the hierarchy of system components (program or module tree) rather then data structures and algorithms is abstracted. Structural abstraction level is a further abstraction of system components (program or modules) to extract the program structures, how the components are related and control to each other. Functional abstraction level is a higher abstraction level, it usually achieve by further abstraction of components or sub-components (programs or modules or class) to reveal the relations and logic, which perform certain tasks. Domain Abstraction further abstracts the functions by replacing its algorithmic nature with concepts and specific to the application domain."

(Nadim Asif, 2003)

Nadim Asif (2003). "Reverse Engineering Methodology to Recover the Design Artifacts: A Case Study". International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice, SERP '03 Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. Volume 2.

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2003abstract representation • abstraction layers • abstractions for problem solving • application domain • appropriately complex representation • conceptual hierarchy • conceptual organisation • conceptualisationdesign abstractiondesign conceptualisationdesign methodologydesign modeldesign problem • domain abstraction • functional abstraction • high-level design • implementation abstraction • layers of abstraction • methods for design practiceproblem abstractionproblem-solvingrequirements engineeringreverse engineeringreverse engineering abstraction • Reverse Engineering Abstraction Methodology (REAM) • software abstraction • software artefact • software designsoftware engineeringsoftware modellingstructural abstraction • system components • system processes • systems theory

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
17 APRIL 2014

British Pathe releases 85,000 films on YouTube

"Newsreel archive British Pathé has uploaded its entire collection of 85,000 historic films, in high resolution, to its YouTube channel. This unprecedented release of vintage news reports and cinemagazines is part of a drive to make the archive more accessible to viewers all over the world.

'Our hope is that everyone, everywhere who has a computer will see these films and enjoy them,' says Alastair White, General Manager of British Pathé. 'This archive is a treasure trove unrivalled in historical and cultural significance that should never be forgotten. Uploading the films to YouTube seemed like the best way to make sure of that.'

British Pathé was once a dominant feature of the British cinema experience, renowned for first-class reporting and an informative yet uniquely entertaining style. It is now considered to be the finest newsreel archive in existence. Spanning the years from 1896 to 1976, the collection includes footage – not only from Britain, but from around the globe – ofmajor events, famous faces, fashion trends, travel, sport and culture. The archive is particularly strong in its coverage of the First and Second World Wars.

Alastair White continues: 'Whether you're looking for coverage of the Royal Family, the Titanic, the destruction of the Hindenburg, or quirky stories about British pastimes, it'll be there on our channel. You can lose yourself for hours.'

This project is being managed by German company Mediakraft, which has been responsible for numerous past YouTube successes. The company will be creating new content using British Pathé material, in English and in foreign languages."

(The British Pathé Archive, 17 April 2014)

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1896 • 1976 • Alastair White • amateur photographerarchival materialarchiveBritish filmBritish PatheBritish Royal Family • cinemagazine • cosmeticscultural collecting organisationscultural heritagedigitisation project • Edward Curtis • factory girl • film archive • film collection • filmed news stories • First World War • footagehair styling • heat exchanger • heat pump • Hindenburg disaster • historic film • historical collection • holiday camp • Mediakraft • national cultural heritage online • news report • newsreel • newsreel archive • pastimes • Playboy Bunny • Playboy Club • promotion and dissemination • RMS Titanic • sea travel • Second World Warshort subjectssocial history • Titanic disaster • travelogue • vintage films • WWIWWIIYouTubeYouTube channel

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
17 APRIL 2014

Jean Tinguely: Art, Machines and Motion

"Jean Tinguely exhibited in a show titled 'Art, Machines and Motion' at the Kaplan Gallery, London, in November 1959. In conjunction with that exhibition, Tinguely held a conference and performance at the Institute of Contemporary Art on November 16 titled 'Static, Static, Static! Be Static!' During the event, 1.5 km of paper drawn by two cyclists on his meta-matic bicycle were spread through the audience while Tinguely read his theory of movement and machines simultaneously heard on radio in Paris."

(Rosemary O'Neill, p.159)

Rosemary O'Neill (2011). Total Art and Fluxus in Nice. "Art and Visual Culture on the French Riviera, 1956-1971: The Ecole De Nice", Ashgate Publishing Limited.

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1959abstract artanarchicart exhibition • Art Machines and Motion (exhibition) • auto-generateavant-garde artistsbicycleBritish Pathecontraptiondo-it-yourself • Ewan Phillips • generative artgenerative compositional techniqueInstitute of Contemporary Artsinteractive artironicJean Tinguely • Kaplan Gallery • kinetic sculptureLondonmachine aestheticmachinesmechanical device • meta-matic bicycle • meta-maticsmid 20th-centurymotion • movement and machines • moving machines • newsreel • Nouveau Realistes • paperParisplayfulradiorobot artrobotised assemblagessculptorsculpture • speed sculpture

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 APRIL 2014

Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs at Tate Modern

Tate Modern: Exhibition, 17 April – 7 September 2014

"Henri Matisse is a giant of modern art. This landmark show explores the final chapter in his career in which he began 'carving into colour' and his series of spectacular cut-outs was born. ...

In his late sixties, when ill health first prevented Matisse from painting, he began to cut into painted paper with scissors to make drafts for a number of commissions. In time, Matisse chose cut-outs over painting: he had invented a new medium. ...

For the first time ever, we are broadcasting live into cinemas around the country with an exclusive film about the exhibition. Matisse Live offers an intimate, behind-the-scenes view of the artist via beautiful footage of the works, interviews with his friends plus rare archive footage of Matisse at work."

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2014artistartistic practicebehind-the-scenescolourcolour fieldcolour papercoloured paper • creative sophistication • cut-outcut-out illustration • cut-outs • design formalismdigital cinema projectionexhibitionflat spaceHenri Matisselive screeningLondon • Matisse Live • modern art • painted paper • paperretrospective exhibitionscissorsTate Modernvisual abstraction

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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